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Mary Shelley, works and excerpts from works cited by Shelley, bibliography,
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Percy Shelley addressed it as "Paradise of exiles" (Julian and Maddalo) and Byron made it his adopted country until his final sojourn in Greece. Italy was for Mary Shelley's circle a site of symbolic, artistic, cultural--and actual--exile, as well as an ancient ideal standard of civilization against which to measure the fall into servitude and general failings of the present day. (See this 1824 sonnet by Guidiccioni.)
Jane Williams, friend of Mary Shelley and the object and recipient of Percy Shelley's last love lyrics (written on the coast of Italy). She lived near Mary at Kentish Town for a time from 1824, during the months the latter was completing The Last Man.
Pierre Simon, marquis de La Place (1749-1827), French astronomer and mathemetician, who extended Newton's insights in his best known work, Exposition du système du monde (1796), formulating a theory of the origin of the solar system.
A traditional southern wintering place for the English, Italy frequently became during the Romantic period a site of elective exile and refuge, treated as especially interesting for its sublime layers of history and civilizations set against a backdrop of "primitive" natural beauty.
Mary Shelley's father, William Godwin, was the author of a famous Jacobin novel, Caleb Williams; Or, Things as They Are (1794). In it the hero is wrongly pursued (out of revenge) by unjust law based in class inequality; at one point he falls in among rural thieves and then spends some time in jail.