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The Last Man
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Through many changes, Lionel's consciousness of his status as a "shepherd-boy" remains with him until the end of the novel. It is also a major point of contention when he is courting the noble Idris (see I.5).
In the introduction to the 1831 edition of Frankenstein, Mary Shelley writes,
I lived principally in the country as a girl, and passed a considerable time in Scotland. I made occasional visits to the more picturesque parts; but my habitual residence was on the blank and dreary northern shors of the Tay, near Dundee. Blank and dreary on retrospection I call them; they were not so to me then. They were the eyry of freedom.
Raymond's technological and engineering improvements, here, described as "schemes" and "projects," invoke Godwinian notions of human perfectibility, Napoleonic empire-building, and--finally--Frankensteinian faith in science. Notice that, by the end of the sentence, such schemes are compared to the exotic fantasies of the Arabian Nights.
Guido Reni (1575-1642) was a favorite painter of the Shelleys. In the Preface to his tragedy, The Cenci ( Reiman and Powers edn.), Percy Shelley describes at length a famous portrait of Beatrice Cenci he (and Mary) had seen at the Colonna Palace, a painting then (erroneously) attributed to Guido: "the lips have that permanent meaning of imagination and sensibility which suffering has not repressed and which it seems as if death scarcely could extinguish."
During the early nineteenth century, Rome, the Eternal City, became an especially significant site for English authors. Mary Shelley and P. B. Shelley lived there; Shelley and Keats are buried there; the former wrote much of his best-known work, Prometheus Unbound, amidst the monuments and ruins of the city.