The ancient capital of the Byzantine Empire and, afterwards, the Ottoman Empire, Constantinople (after 1930 known as Istanbul) has a long history of conquests and seiges. It was taken by the Crusaders in 1204 and the Turks in 1453. Its old city was built on seven hills, overlooking the Bosphorous. Its most famous landmarks include the Seraglio and Hagia Sophia (or St. Sophia).
Map of Mediterranean region