Romantic Circles Gallery
Victoria Headland, Mouth of the Thlew-ee-cho-de-zeth
A crew rows their boat away from the viewer and towards the mouth of a river in lightly choppy seas. A man standing in back steers with the rudder oar. A sand beach extends on the left, while bluffs rise to the right. Billowing clouds build on the horizon to the left. It appears to be sunset or sunrise, the sun itself hidden behind the bluffs.
Copyright 2009, Department of Special Collections, Memorial Library, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
Thordarson T 183
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In his book, Arctic Spectacles: The Frozen North in Visual Culture, 1818-1875 (2007), Russell A. Potter writes: "Beginning with the Buchan expedition to the North Pole in 1818 (on which then Lieutenant John Franklin served as second officer), nearly every expedition licensed the sketches of its artistically inclined officers to panorama exhibitors.” This was partially a by-product of the fact that “for each major expedition” that the Admiralty launched, “an official representation had to be provided, not just textually but also visually”—that is, the narrative examined here. Meanwhile, panoramas (an “all-encompassing” visual technology for which Robert Barker first received his patent in 1796) were “almost exactly coeval with [the] public fascination with the North” (Potter 5-7). Indeed, Potter contends that the Arctic was “the most ‘sublime and awful’ spectacle of that already spectacular era,” which fact was emphasized by the “60 Arctic shows—including 22 moving panoramas, 3 fixed panoramas, 12 lantern expeditions, 4 mechanical automata theaters, and 4 exhibitions of “Esquimaux” or Arctic natives” between 1818 and 1883” (12).
The accuracy of this superlative is debatable, especially given the strong interest in the Alps during the same time period and the lack of information about how Back’s images (among other Arctic travelogues) were received. However, it is clear that there was intense interest in the Arctic as artistic—and, particularly, exotic—subject even beyond the many panoramas: for example, Caspar David Friedrich’s lost painting, Wrecked Ship off the Coast of Greenland under a May Moon (1822), was sold to Empress Catherine of Russia. Later, Friedrich painted his wildly popular Sea of Ice (1823), in which a “heaped-up pyramid of ice-slabs, jaggedly enjambed by the pressure of the floes, tilt[s] dangerously to the left of the field of view. It is only after tracing the outline of this icy mass that the viewer notices the stern of a sailing-ship off to the right, its masts carried away and crushed like toothpicks under the looming ridge of ice” (Potter 58). Finally, William Westall was another artist who helped create a particularly romanticized vision of the Arctic, and Martin Meisel notes that “nautical melodramas” were highly popular as plays during this time (197).
Founding of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours (1804)
With the formation only in 1804 of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours, this medium of painting was not commonly thought of in the years of Back’s youth as a professional art. But at the close of the 19th century the transition began to occur from topographical draughtsmanship, which the academies taught military students, to picturesque renditions of nature. (Maclaren 293)Founding of the Royal Geographic Society (1830)
The Royal Geographic Society (RGS) was established in 1830. It "increasingly took responsibility for both promoting polar research and publishing the results"; furthermore, "one of the first expeditions the Society supported was that of Sir George Back to the Canadian Arctic in 1832” (David 63-6). The RGS also produced the Proceedings Journal and then the Geographical Journal in order to record expeditions, provide illustrations, and provide information for new explorers, as well as to provide interim reports on those expeditions (David 63-6).
The Thlew-ee-cho-de-zeth, or Great Fish River, is now called the "Back River" after George Back:
Back River rises in drift-covered hills northeast of Great Slave Lake and flows north and east through a low featureless plain that has numerous sandy areas and long eskers. Northward the lowland merges into the rocky hills of the Bathurst Upland and the drumlinoid hills south of Queen Maud Gulf. (An Introduction to the Geography of The Canadian Arctic 5)
Sir George Back variously painted or drew his images while on his expeditions, depending on the weather; in very cold temperatures his paints would freeze, so they were frequently rendered useless. These originals appear to be scattered among various private collections.
This image was printed for Back's Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition to the mouth of the Great Fish River, and along the shores of the Arctic Ocean, in the years 1833, 1834, and 1835 (1836). Other notable polar expedition narratives published during this immediate period include:
By Sir George Back: Narrative of an expedition in H. M. S. Terror, undertaken with a view to geographical discovery on the Arctic shores, in the years 1836-7 (1838)
By Sir John Franklin: Narrative of a journey to the shores of the Polar Sea, in the years 1819-20-21-22 (1824)
By Sir John Ross: A voyage of discovery, made under the order of the Admiralty, in His Majesty’s ships Isabella and Alexander, for the purpose of exploring Baffin’s Bay, and inquiring into the probability of a North-west Passage (1819); and Narrative of a second voyage in search of a north-west passage, and of a residence in the Arctic regions during the years 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833. By Sir John Ross ... Including the reports of ... James Clark Ross ... and the discovery of the northern magnetic pole (1835)
By Sir William Edward Parry: Journal of a voyage for the discovery of a north-west passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific; performed in the years, 1819-20, in His Majesty’s ships Hecla and Griper, under the orders of William Edward Parry (1821); Journal of a second voyage for the discovery of a northwest passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific; performed in the years 1821-22-23, in His Majesty's ships Fury and Hecla, under the orders of Captain William Edward Parry (1824); and Journal of a third voyage for the discovery of a northwest passage, from the Atlantic to the Pacific: performed in the years 1824-25, in His Majesty's ships Hecla and Fury, under the orders of Captain William E. Parry (1826)
Sir George Back's Victoria Headland effectively places the British Empire in a relation of unique, solitary independence to the Arctic landscape which, rather than acting as an impediment to imperial movements, placidly funnels the explorers' rowboat along the river towards the sea.
British. Landscape. Exploration. Arctic.
This is one of Back's most strikingly imperialist images, which—even before it was printed in his book—was made more so by his naming the landscape after a monarch. The rowboat with the explorers is, moreover, effectively alone and unimpeded by the Arctic landscape. Back writes:
The afternoon permitted us to proceed; and it was while threading our way between some sand-banks, with a strong current, that we first caught sight of a majestic headland in the extreme distance to the north, which had a coast-like appearance. This important promontory was subsequently honored by receiving the name of Her Royal Highness the Princess Victoria. The sand-banks also now became broken into cliffs, which, dwindling away on the eastern side to a vanishing point, subsided on the western into low flats, the level of which was just broken by half a dozen sandy knolls sparingly tipped with a few blades of dry grass . . . This then may be considered as the mouth of the Thlew-ee-choh, which, after a violent and tortuous course of five hundred and thirty geographical miles, running through iron-ribbed country without a single tree on the whole line of its banks, expanding into fine large lakes with clear horizons, most embarrassing to the navigator, and broken into falls, cascades and rapids, to the number of no less than eighty-three in the whole. (389-390)Back's description indicates his frequently inconsistent style, which variously displays aesthetic word-paintings, imperialist haughtiness, and simple yet detailed cartographic diction. This image is also a prime example of the capabilities of the lithographer Louis Haghe, who is clearly showing off his artistic ability and the flexibility of the medium in the beautiful, complex forming of the clouds.
Stuart C. Houston notes that:
The world’s greatest naval power and its underemployed navy after the end of the Napoleonic Wars found the continued presence of large blank areas on the world map an irresistible challenge. John Barrow, the powerful second secretary to the Admiralty, had strong backing from the newly important scientific community to renew the search for the Northwest Passage after a long wartime hiatus. (xiv)In addition to simply providing visual aids for a travel narrative, then, Back’s images must be seen as integral to the literal illustration of those “large blank areas” that Britain wanted to conquer. Expedition imagery during the Romantic period addressed other needs as well, including the translation of “otherness”—which the Arctic so easily exemplified in its comparatively uninhabited starkness—into a culturally understandable, and thus accessible, space for national expansionism and the application of identity. Furthermore, in ostensibly drawing accurate portrayals of the landscape (which Franklin frequently confirms), Back created scientific records designed to both titillate and inform the British public and scientific community.
Ames, Van Meter. “John Dewey as Aesthetician.” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 12.2 (1953): 145-68. Print.
Back, George. Arctic Artist: The Journal and Paintings of George Back, Midshipman with Franklin, 1819-1822. Ed. C. Stuart Houston. Buffalo: McGill-Queen’s UP, 1994. Print.
---. Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition to the Mouth of the Great Fish River and along the Shores of the Arctic Ocean, in the Years 1833, 1834, and 1835. London: 1836. Print.
Broglio, Ron. Technologies of the Picturesque: British Art, Poetry, and Instruments, 1750-1830. Lewisburg: Bucknell UP, 2008. Print.
Canada Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Geographical Branch. An Introduction to the Geography of The Canadian Arctic. Edmond Cloutier: Ottawa, 1951. Print.
Daston, Lorraine and Peter Gallison. Objectivity. New York: Zone Books, 2007. Print.
David, Robert G. The Arctic in the British Imagination. New York: Manchester UP, 2000. Print.
Dewey, John. “Experience, Nature and Art.” John Dewey: The Later Works, 1925-53. Ed. Jo Ann Boydston. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1981. 266-95. Print.
Dewey, John. “The Practical Character of Reality.” Pragmatism: The Classic Writings. Ed. H.S. Thayer. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1982. 275-289. Print.
Feldman, Jessica R. Victorian Modernism: Pragmatism and the Varieties of Aesthetic Experience. New York: Cambridge UP, 2002. Print.
Franklin, John. Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea, in the Years 1825, 1826, and 1827. London, 1828. Print.
Heringman, Noah, ed. Romantic Science: The Literary Forms of Natural History. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003. Print. Suny Series in the Long Nineteenth Century.
---. Introduction. Heringman 1-22.
---. “The Rock Record and Romantic Narratives of the Earth.” Heringman 53-85.
Houston, C. Stuart. Introduction. Arctic Artist: The Journal and Paintings of George Back, Midshipman with Franklin, 1819-1822. By George Back. Ed. Houston. Buffalo: McGill-Queen’s UP, 1994. xiii-xxvi. Print.
Labbe, Jacqueline M. Romantic Visualities: Landscape, Gender and Romanticism. London: Macmillan, 1998. Print.
Levin, Jonathan. “The Esthetics of Pragmatism.” American Literary History. 6.4 (1994): 658-83. Print.
Maclaren, I.S. “Commentary: The Aesthetics of Back’s Writing and Painting.” Arctic Artist: The Journal and Paintings of George Back, Midshipman with Franklin, 1819-1822. By George Back. Ed. C. Stuart Houston. Buffalo: McGill-Queen’s UP, 1994. 275-310. Print.
Markham, Sir Clements R. The Lands of Silence: A History of Arctic and Antarctic Exploration. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1921. Print.
Meisel, Martin. Realizations: Narrative, Pictorial, and Theatrical Arts in Nineteenth-century England. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1983. Print.
Potter, Russell A. Arctic Spectacles: The Frozen North in Visual Culture, 1818-1875. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2007. Print.
Price, Uvedale. “Essays on the Picturesque, as compared with the Sublime and the Beautiful; and on the Use of studying Pictures, for the Purpose of improving real Landscape (Vol. 1, 1810)." The Picturesque: Literary Sources and Documents. Vol. 2. Ed. Malcolm Andrews. Robertsbridge: Helm Information, 1994. 72-142. Print.
Rescher, Nicholas. Realistic Pragmatism: An Introduction to Pragmatic Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2000. Print.
Steele, Peter. The Man who Mapped the Arctic. Vancouver: Raincoast Books, 2003. Print.
Twyman, Michael. “Haghe, Louis (1806–1885).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004. Web. 6 Apr. 2009.
Verner, Coolie. Explorers’ Maps of the Canadian Arctic 1818-1860. B.V. Gutsell: Toronto, 1972. Print.
Wilson, Eric. The Spiritual History of Ice. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Print.
Woodring, Carl. Nature into Art: Cultural Transformations in Nineteenth-Century Britain. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1989. Print.
Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition to the mouth of the Great Fish River, and along the shores of the Arctic Ocean, in the years 1833, 1834, and 1835; by Captain Back, R.N., commander of the expedition. Illustrated by a map and plates. London: John Murray, Albemarle Street. MDCCCXXXVI.
Day & Haghe