1 Brook Farm was an experimental farm at West Roxbury, Massachusetts. Founded in 1841 by George Ripley, this farm was an experiment in cooperative living that combined manual labor with education and intellectual conversation. Members included Nathaniel Hawthorne and Charles S. Dana; visitors included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, William Ellery Channing, Horace Greeley, and Orestes Brownson. An intellectual success, but a financial failure, Brook Farm finally folded in 1847. Fruitlands was another experimental communal farm of the 1840s.
2 This phrase occurs in the title of Charles Darwin's book, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (1859).