Secularism, Cosmopolitanism, and Romanticism
Paul Hamilton, Queen Mary, University of London
1. British historians as opposed as Linda Colley and J.C.D. Clark have drawn attention to what had before been thought too obvious to merit explanation, but now looks precisely the thing in need of explanation—how one accounts for a coherence or underlying identity of interests from the late seventeenth century onwards, resulting in the formation of British national consciousness and a shared sense of belonging because of, rather than despite, all sorts of sectarian difficulty. Opposed interests dispute by claiming to be more patriotic. Equally revisionist American Romanticists have therefore re-characterised the British Romantic view of the nation as a subject for management rather than as a Jerusalem to be imagined. See particularly Christensen and Canuel.
3. See J. G. E. Pocock's typically conclusive summary: "The ideal of politeness had first appeared in the restoration, where it formed part of the latitudinarian campaign to replace prophetic by sociable religiosity. This campaign is carried on by Addison ." (236).
6. Searle 8-9. Contrast Strawson's concluding remarks in "Intention and Convention in Speech Acts": "For the illocutionary force of an utterance is essentially something that is intended to be understood. Once this common element in all illocutionary acts is clear, we can really acknowledge that the types of audience-directed intention involved may be very various and, also, that different types may be exemplified by one and the same utterance" (38).
7. Some philosophers have objected, though, that Grice's increasingly confident insistence that performance corroborates natural meaning (now located in formal sentence structure rather than illocutionary act) arrests the dialogic or inter-subjective direction taken by his early, more tentative theory of meaning. See Grandy and Warner. For a meticulous account of Grice's development and changing philosophical context, see Avramides, ch. 1.
8. See Cordner. Cordner is very careful to distinguish the interpretations of Aristotle from which he has learnt—MacIntyre, Casey, Gaita, and, in a more conflicted way, Williams—from the 'instrumentalist' Aristotelian who reduces ethics to what Grice would have called entirely 'natural meanings' (p. 180 n.2).
9. Grandy and Warner, pp. 48-9, 61-2, 64. Grice lists collaborations with Peter Strawson, J. L. Austin, Geoffrey Warnock, David Pears, Fritz Staal, George Myro, and Judith Baker. On the well-directed life or ethical surrounds of his theory of meaning, see Grice's "A Reply to Richards" in Grandy and Warner, especially p. 61.
10. See Hegel's description of court "flattery" by which the Courtier preserves independence from the absolute monarch he serves. But this cultured distance from natural power becomes indistinguishable from base subservience, much as the later use of "wit," culminating in Diderot's Le Neveu de Rameau, identifies spiritual progress with complete disintegration (Phenomenology, Part VI, B).
13. For comic possibilities of the secular differing from itself see Connolly 45. On the determination to be tragic, recent reactions to the Pope's lecture in Regensburg, 12 September 2006, on the rational heritage of Christianity, are instructive.