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CHRONOLOGY NOTES

This page contains notes and other scholarly apparatus for both The Romantic Chronology and The Shelley Chronology. It is currently under heavy construction and not all notes are complete. Please send comments and suggestions to Carl Stahmer at cstahmer@rc.umd.edu.
=Romantic Chronology, =Shelley Chronology

[ref] 1796: Napoleon Bonaparte leads French army into Italy and defeats Austrians.

On 2 March Napoleon is appointed commander of the Armée d'Italie and assumes command on 27 March. Early on 12 April, the first battle of his Italian campaign engages at Mont Legino. See Ramsey Weston Phipps, The Armies of the First French Republic and the Rise of the Marshals of Napoleon, 4 vols. (London: Oxford University Press, 1926-29), volume 4, pp. 5-157. See also Henry Lachouque, Napoleon's Battles: A history of his campaigns, trans. Roy Monkcom (New York: Dutton, 1967), pp. 33-56.


[ref] 1798: PBS studies with local clergyman, the Reverend Evan ("Taffy") Edwards.

See Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1966), p. 5. See also Newman Ivey White, Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1940), vol. 1, p. 18.


[ref] Spring 1800: Act of Union of Great Britain and Ireland.

Initial versions of the act adopted by Irish Commons and Lords by march 28 and by British Parliament by second week of May. On 6 June, Irish House of Commons receives and approves the act by a vote of 153 to 88. After minor amendments by the British Parliament, identical bills are given Royal Assent on 2 July in Britain and on 1 August in Ireland. See David George Boyce, Nineteenth-Century Ireland: The search for stability (Savage, Md.: Barnes and Noble Books, 1991), pp. 20-21. See also Justin H. McCarthy (Justin Huntly), Ireland Since the Union: Sketches of Irish history from 1798 to 1886 (Chicago and New York: Belford, Clarke and Co., 1887), pp. 57-65; and John Steven Watson, The Reign of George III, 1760-1815 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960), p. 400.


[ref] February 1801: William Pitt ousted.

Early in the month Pitt and his colleagues tender resignations to the King, assuring him of their desire to facilitate their successors. See The Cambridge History of British Foreign Policy, 1783-1919, 3 vols., eds. A. W. Ward and G. P. Gooch (New York: Octagon Books, 1970), p. 302.


[ref] 1802: PBS begins boarding school at Syon House Academy, Isleworth, on the Great Western Road in Thames Valley.

See Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1966), p. 5. See also Newman Ivey White, Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1940), vol. 1, p. 18.


[ref] September 1804: PBS begins studies at Eton--continues through spring of 1810.

There is some confusion regarding this date. According to Donald Reiman, PBS begins his Eaton studies in September. According to both Dowden and White, however, PBS's handwriting can still be seen in the entrance-book of the head master of Eaton under the date July 29, 1804. See Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (London: Kegan Paul, Trench and Company, 1886), vol. 1, p. 20. See also Newman Ivey White, Shelley (London: Secker and Warburg, 1947), vol 1., p. 31.


[ref] Spring 1810: PBS's Gothic novel Zastrozzi published.

According to White [see Newman Ivey White, Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1940), vol. 1, p. 55, and Portrait of Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1945), p. 25.] Zastrozzi is first published in March. Dowden, however, dates its publication as 1 April; see Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1966), p. 21.


[ref] 30 July 1810: PBS concludes his studies at Eton.

See Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1966), p. 23. See also Newman Ivey White, Portrait of Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1945), vol 1., p. 30.


[ref] September/October 1810: PBS and his sister Elizabeth's Original Poetry by "Victor" and "Cazire" published and withdrawn.

On 6 September Shelley receives the last proof impression of the work from the printer. It is published shortly thereafter; but, probably within three weeks of its publication, it is discovered that one of its poems is a plagiarism. On being notified of such, Shelley writes a letter to the publisher explaining that he is incensed about the trickery of his partner and requests that all remaining copies of the work be promptly destroyed. Whether or not they were is suspect, due to the known unscrupulous nature of the publisher, but support by the fact that there are now only three extant copies of the original work. See Newman Ivey White, Portrait of Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1945), pp. 25-26. Se also Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1966), p. 57.


[ref] 10 October 1810: PBS begins studies at University College, Oxford, where he meets Thomas Jefferson Hogg shortly thereafter.

PBS first appears at University College on 10 April, when he signs the entrance register; but he returns immediately to Field House for the duration of the interim term, returning to Oxford to begin his studies in October. See Newman Ivey White, Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1940), vol. 1, p. 75, and Portrait of Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1945), p. 30. See also Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1966), p. 23.


[ref] December 1810: St. Irvyne, PBS's second Gothic novel published.

According to Newman Ivey White, the novel must have been published by 10 December 1810 [ see Shelley (London: Secker and Warburg, 1947), vol 1., p. 31.]. See also Roger Ingpen, Shelley in England (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1917), vol. 1, p. 124.


[ref] ? February 1811: PBS and Hogg write The Necessity of Atheism.

The exact date of the writing of The Necessity of Atheism is difficult to pinpoint. We know that sometime in late December or early January PBS told Stockdale that he had completed a "metaphysical essay in support of atheism" [see Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1966), p. 50], and that around the same time Timothy Shelley was in communication with Stockdale because of Stockdale's concern for Shelley's radical views on religion. Roger Ingpen suggests that the work was probably written during Shelley's visit to Field Place of his winter break from University College [see Shelley in England (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1917), vol 1., p. 188]. It is, however, advertised as 'forthcoming' on 9 February in the "Oxford University and City Herald," and Newman Ivey White suggests that because its language closely resembles that of Shelley's letters on the subject around this time, its date of composition is probably sometime around 6 February. See Newman Ivey White, Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1940), vol. 1, p. 110. See also Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1966), pp. 50-51.


[ref] 25 August 1811: PBS and Harriet Westbrook elope and are married in Edinburgh on August 29.

See Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1966), pp. 82-83. See also Newman Ivey White, Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1940), vol. 1, p. 154; and Roger Ingpen, Shelley in England (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1917), vol 1., pp. 308-310.


[ref] October 1811: The Shelley's arrive at York, where Hogg tries to seduce Harriet.

See Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1966), pp. 88-93. See also Kenneth Neill Cameron, ed., Shelley and His Cricle (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1970), vol 3, p. 13.


[ref] November 1811: Shelleys move to Keswick and are befriended by Southey.

There is some confusion as to the exact dates of the Shelleys's departure from York and arrival in Keswick, but the best primary evidence suggests that they left York on the 1st or 2nd of November and arrived in Keswick on the 6th. See Kenneth Neill Cameron, ed., Shelley and His Cricle (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1970), vol 3, pp. 26-27. See also Newman Ivey White, Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1940), vol. 1, p. 171.


[ref] February 1812: Early in the month, the Shelley's travel to Dublin.

The exact date of the Shelleys' departure from Keswick is unknown. In a letter dated 29 January, Shelley writes to Elizabeth Hitchener that they "will leave Keswick on Monday" [3 February], but in a subsequent letter dated 3 February he informs her that they are already in Whitehaven, a small port village, from which they will set sail that night. [See Roger Ingpen, ed., The Complete Works of Shelley: Letters (New York: Gordian Press, 1965), vol 8, pp. 260-267]. Given the known distance between Keswick and Whitehaven it is most likely that they left Keswick on the 1st or 2nd of February [see Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1966), pp. 116], arriving in Dublin on 12 February [see Roger Ingpen, ed., The Complete Works of Shelley: Letters (New York: Gordian Press, 1965), vol 8, pp. 260-267]; see also Newman Ivey White, Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1940), vol. 1, p. 203].


[ref] February 1812: Declaration of Rights printed.

The exact date of the printing of Shelley's Declaration of Rights is unknown; however, it was most likely printed after his two Irish pamphlets, Address to the Irish People and Proposals for an Association, etc. [march 2] and before March 18th. Shelley's letters during the earlier part of his stay in Dublin contain frequent references to An Address to the Irish People and, in a letter from Shelley to Hitchener dated 27 February [see Roger Ingpen, ed., The Complete Works of Shelley: Letters (New York: Gordian Press, 1965), vol 8, p. 284.], Shelley remarks that his 'next publication' after An Address will go to press on 2 March, the date of the publication of his Proposal. The lack of any reference to the Declaration of Rights in the transition from his Address to his Proposal strongly suggests that the Declaration had not yet been printed when the Proposal was on 2 March. The first concrete mention of the Declaration occurs in a letter from Harriet to Hitchener dated 18 March [see Roger Ingpen, ed., The Complete Works of Shelley: Letters (New York: Gordian Press, 1965), vol 8, p. 248] which was enclosed in a box containing printed copies of both the Declaration and the Address. The entire box was supposed to be shipped to Hitchener, but was never delivered by the postmaster because of its political content.


[ref] 6 April 1812: Shelleys return to Wales.

The exact date of the Shelley's departure from Dublin is not known, but it most likely occurred on 4 April. It is known that they arrived in Wales at 2:00 am on 6 April. See Newman Ivey White, Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1940), vol. 1, p. 227. See also Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1966), p. 133.


[ref] June 1812: Shelleys move to Lynmouth, Devon, where PBS writes Letter to Lord Ellenborough.

See letter of 30 June from Harriet Shelley to Catherine Nugent in Roger Ingpen, ed., The Complete Works of Shelly: Letters (New York: Gordian Press, 1965), vol 9, pp. 3-4. See also, Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1966), pp. 138-139.


[ref] 29 September 1812: Shelleys and Hitchener go to London.

See Newman Ivey White, Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1940), vol. 1, pp. 256-258.


[ref] September 1812: Napoleon wins Battle of Borodino and captures Moscow.

See Henry Lachouque, The Anatomy of Glory: Napoleon and his guard, a study in leadership, trans. Anne S. K. Brown (Providence: Brown University Press, 1961), pp. 237-247. See also George Libaire, ed., With Napoleon in Russia: The memoirs of General de Caulaincourt, Duke of Vicenza (New York: W. Morrow and Company, 1935), pp. 82-105.


[ref] 4 October 1812: PBS meets Godwin in London.

See Newman Ivey White, Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1940), vol. 1, p. 259. See also Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1966), p. 155.


[ref] July 1813: Shelleys at Bracknell, with Newton-Boinville circle.

The exact date of the Shelley's move from to Bracknell is unknown; PBS's letters reveal that they were in London as late as 9 July [see Roger Ingpen, ed., The Complete Works of Shelley: Letters (New York: Gordian Press, 1965), vol 9, p. 75] and it is certain that they were in Bracknell by 27 July [see Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1966), p. 202] .


[ref] January+ 1814: Early in the month, the Allies begin their invasion of France.

See Henry Lachouque, The Anatomy of Glory: Napoleon and his guard, a study in leadership, trans. Anne S. K. Brown (Providence: Brown University Press, 1961), pp. 333-399. See also Henry Lachouque, Napoleon's Battles: A history of his campaigns, trans. Roy Monkcom (New York: Dutton, 1967), pp. 381-412.


[ref] 3 April 1814: Napoleon deposed and then abdicates.

On the evening of 31 August a senate is convened by Talleyrand including the Tsar, the King of Prussia, and Schwartzenberg. After several days of deliberation on how to proceed with the governance of France, on 2 April a decision to depose Napoleon is reached. It is officially proclaimed, with the agreement of the 'Corps Legislative', on 3 April, and a provisional government is hastily established. On 4 April, at Fontainbleau, after trying to rally his troops and supporters, Napoleon gives his first "conditional" abdication in which he states that he will abdicate in favor of his son since "the foreign powers have declared that the Emperor Napoleon is an obstacle to restoring peace and territorial integrity to France." His conditional abdication is, however, not accepted and, with the support of his own circle wavering, on 6 April he gives his final "unconditional" abdication stating that "Since the Allied powers have proclaimed Emperor Napoleon to be the one obstacle to restoring peace in Europe, the Emperor, faithful to his oath, hereby renounces for himself and his heirs the thrones of France and Italy, and declares that there is no sacrifice, including his life, that he is not willing to make for France." His fate is finally sealed on 11 February with the signing of the treaty of Fontainbleau in which he is granted the island of Elba and an annual allowance. See Henry Lachouque, The Anatomy of Glory: Napoleon and his guard, a study in leadership, trans. Anne S. K. Brown (Providence: Brown University Press, 1961), pp. 403-409. See also George Lefebvre, Napoleon: From Tilsit to Waterloo, 1807-1815, trans. J. E. Anderson (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969), pp. 351-352.


[ref] 27 July 1814: PBS and Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin (MWS) elope to war-ravaged France, accompanied by MWS's step-sister, Mary Jane (later "Claire") Clairmont (born ?April 27, 1798), after which they quickly remove to Switzerland.

After a bitter passage, the party arrives in Calais on 29 July and reaches Paris about 2:00 pm on 2 August, where they remain for 6 days before departing for Switzerland. See Newman Ivey White, Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1940), vol. 1, pp. 348-351.


[ref] 5 January 1815: Sir Bysshe Shelley dies. During the subsequent 18 months, PBS is involved in negotiations with his father over the settlement of the will, ultimately receiving money to pay his debts (some cash he diverts to Godwin), as well as an annual income of (pounds) 1,000 ( 200 earmarked for Harriet; later 120 for her children).

See Newman Ivey White, Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1940), vol. 1, pp. 393-399. See also, Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1966), pp. 276-280.


[ref] January-April 1815: PBS, MWS, Claire Clairmont, and Hogg engage in free-love experiment.

The details as to the physical nature of this experiment are a bit unclear, although it appears that MWS abstained from any sexual activities (both with PBS and Hogg) as a result of her pregnancy during the same period. It is clear, however, from Mary's letters and journals that she at least theoretically embraced Shelley's free love ideology and that all members of the group were at least emotionally intimate with each other during this period. See Newman Ivey White, Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1940), vol. 1, pp. 348-351. See also Frederick L. Jones, ed., Mary Shelley's Journal (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1957), pp. 34-44.


[ref] February/March 1815: Napoleon returns to rule France for the Hundred Days in March through June.

On February 26, Napoleon leaves for France. On the night of 19 March, perceiving his fate, Louis XVII leaves for Lille. Napoleon arrives in Paris on February 26, having been received warmly along the way. See George Lefebvre, Napoleon: From Tilsit to Waterloo, 1807-1815, trans. J. E. Anderson (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969), pp. 360-361.


[ref] Autumn/Winter 1815: PBS writes Alastor.

The earliest probable reference to Alastor in any of the primary material is found in a letter from PBS to Hogg dated September, in which PBS states that he has "been engaged lately in the commencement of several literary plans, which, if my present temper of mind endures, I shall probably complete in the winter." [See Roger Ingpen, ed., The Complete Works of Shelley: Letters (New York: Gordian Press, 1965), vol 9, pp. 119.] By 16 January 1816 it has been printed in sheets by S. Hamilton, a printer of Weybridge, and shelley is in search of a printer. [See Newman Ivey White, Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1940), vol. 1, pp. 418-421.]


[ref] May 1816: PBS, MWS, and Claire Clairmont leave England for Geneva (arrive mid-May) and remain near Byron till August 29.

PBS's letters reveal that the party was in Dover as late as 3 May and had arrived in Geneva by 15 May "after a journey of ten days." See Roger Ingpen, ed., The Complete Works of Shelley: Letters (New York: Gordian Press, 1965), vol 9, pp. 159-163.


[ref] December 1816: Harriet Shelley drowns herself (her body found December 10).

On Saturday, 9 November, Harriet leaves the public house at 23 Chapel Street in which she has recently taken up lodgings by five o'clock in the afternoon and is never seen alive again. Shortly thereafter, her family receives a Farewell letter, but they do not become alarmed until they discover that she has actually disappeared. At their request, the Serpentine and neighboring ponds are dragged, but nothing is found. A month later, on 10 December, an out-pensioner of Chelsea Hospital who was walking along the Serpentine not far from Harriet's lodgings spots her body floating in the river. See Newman Ivey White, Shelley (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1940), vol. 1, pp. 480-483.


[ref] 12 January 1817: Allegra Byron, Claire's daughter, born at Bath.

See Marion Kingston Stocking, ed., The Journals of Claire Clairmont (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1968), p.76.


[ref] 5 February 1817: Shelley meets Keats and Reynolds at supper with Leigh Hunt.

See Paula R. Feldman and Diana Scott-Kilvert, eds., The Journals of Mary Shelley (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987), p. 162. See also Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (London: Kegan Paul, Trench and Company, 1886), vol. 2, p. 100.


[ref] 23 February 1817: PBS, MWS, William, and Claire Clairmont travel to Marlow.

See Roger Ingpen, Shelley in England (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1917), vol. 2, p. 518.


[ref] circa 14 March 1817: PBS's Proposal for Putting Reform to the Vote published.

The exact date of the publication is unknown. Shelley sends his final revisions to Charles Ollier, his publisher, sometime after 9 March [see Roger Ingpen, ed., The Complete Works of Shelley: Letters (New York: Gordian Press, 1965), vol 9, pp. 221-222]; and, on 14 March, in another letter to Ollier, he asks, "How does the pamphlet sell?" [see Roger Ingpen, ed., The Complete Works of Shelley: Letters (New York: Gordian Press, 1965), vol 9, p. 223]. There is no way of knowing whether Shelley had information that the pamphlet had, in fact, been published by this time or simply made the assumption based upon time; however, it is certain that the pamphlet was printed sometime around this date.


[ref] 27 March 1817: Chancery Court denies PBS custody of his children (by Harriet) Ianthe and Charles.

There is some confusion as to the exact date of this decision. Roger Ingpen dates the decision 17 March [see Shelley in England (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1917), vol. 2, p. 503]; but Newman Ivey White, who gives a more full account of the proceeding, dates the decision as 27 March, which would appear to be the correct date [see Shelley (London: Secker and Warburg, 1947), vol 1., p. 489-497.


[ref] 28 March 1817: Shelleys spend first night in Albion House, their permanent home while at Marlow.

See Betty T. Bennett, ed., The Letters of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980), vol. 1, p. 34.


[ref] ?Nov./Dec. 1817: History of a Six Weeks' Tour by MWS and PBS published.

The exact date of publication of the Six Weeks' Tour is unknown as there are no direct references to the event in any of the primary material. A letter from PBS to Thomas Moore dated 16 December shows that it certainly had been published by that date, and Edward Dowden dates the publication as early December respectively [see The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (London: Kegan Paul, Trench and Company, 1886), vol. 2, p. 150]; however, in the chronology which appears in his "Updated Edition" of Percy Bysshe Shelley (Boston: Twayne, 1990) Don Reiman places the publication in November.


[ref] 11-12 November 1817: PBS writes (and perhaps publishes soon after) An Address to the People on the Death of the Princess Charlotte.

On 11 November MWS notes in her Journal, "Shelley Begins a pamphlet," and similarly notes on 12 November, "Shelley finishes pamphlet" [see Paula R. Feldman and Diana Scott-Kilvert, eds., The Journals of Mary Shelley (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987), pp. 183-184. Shelley includes the pamphlet in letter to Charles Ollier on 12 November asking him to see to its publication [see Roger Ingpen, ed., The Complete Works of Shelley: Letters (New York: Gordian Press, 1965), vol 9, p. 252. Whether or not, and by whom, the pamphlet ever made it to press during this year is unclear. Thomas Rodd, who later reprinted the pamphlet in 1843, claimed that not more 20 pamphlets were ever printed in 1817 [see Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (London: Kegan Paul, Trench and Company, 1886), vol. 2, p. 159].


[ref] 17 August 1818: PBS and Claire depart for Venice with hopes of convincing Byron to allow Claire to see Allegra.

See Paula R. Feldman and Diana Scott-Kilvert, eds., The Journals of Mary Shelley (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987), p. 224. See also Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (London: Kegan Paul, Trench and Company, 1886), vol. 2, p. 221, and Newman Ivey White, Shelley (London: Secker and Warburg, 1947), vol 2., p. 29.


[ref] 27 August 1818: The day after arriving in Venice, PBS visits Byron; sends letter to MWS summoning her and the children (with Milly and new servant, Paolo Foggi).

See Roger Ingpen, ed., The Complete Works of Shelley: Letters (New York: Gordian Press, 1965), vol 9, pp. 322-330.


[ref] 27 August - 5 September 1818: PBS settles at Este and begins Prometheus Unbound.

The exact date of Shelley's occupancy of Este is unknown; however, MWS arrived on 5 September, PBS having already settled there. See Newman Ivey White, Shelley (London: Secker and Warburg, 1947), vol 2., p. 36.


[ref] 10 June 1819: Shelleys flee to Livorno, where MWS remains in depression, while PBS writes The Cenci in summer (printed in Italy, it is sent to England for publication in 1820).

See Marion Kingston Stocking, ed., The Journals of Claire Clairmont (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1968), p.113 and Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (London: Kegan Paul, Trench and Company, 1886), vol. 2, pp. 276-282. See also Paula R. Feldman and Diana Scott-Kilvert, eds., The Journals of Mary Shelley (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987), p. 291.


[ref] February 1820: Cato Street conspiracy to Kill the English ministry foiled (leaders executed 1 May).

Arthur Thistlewood and a band of over twenty conspirators plotted to murder the entire Cabinet as they dines together at Lord Harrowby's in Grosvenor Square. They met in a loft in Cato Street, where they were attacked by the Bow Street Runners. Half escaped, but all were quickly arrested. Thistlewood and four of his accomplices were executed on 1 May. See George Macaulay Trevelyan, British History in the 19th Century and After, 1782-1919 (New York: McKay, 1937 and 1962), p. 191.


[ref] 20 October 1820: Claire Clairmont moves to Firenze.

See Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (London: Kegan Paul, Trench and Company, 1886), vol. 2, p. 349.


[ref] ? July 1822: Bodies temporarily buried.

Italian quarantine laws dictated that all bodies washed upon the shore be burried with quicklime. Trewlawny, with the aid of Mr. Dawkins, English charge d'affaires at Florence, was able to obtain permission for the subsequent cremation and removal of the bodies which took place the following month. See Edward Dowden, The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (London: Kegan Paul, Trench and Company, 1886), vol. 2, pp. 530-531.
If you have questions or comments about the Shelley Chronology, please contact Carl Stahmer at cstahmer@rc.umd.edu.