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Quarterly Review Archive

Quarterly Review
VOLUME 6 , NUMBER 12 (December 1811)


NOTES

  • This Number was published 1 Feb. 1812 [Devon MS. 1149M (f.105), WG to Edward Copleston, 4 Feb. 1812; BL MS. 28099 (f.99), WG to George Ellis, 3 Mar. 1812]

  • This Number initially sold about 4200 copies

  • Horace Twiss sued JM for lack of payment for two unpublished articles, on 'Rose on the Public Expenditure' solicited by Gifford and originally intended as the first article of this Number (the proofs are in the Murray archives), and possibly for an article on Persia. In the archives is a lawyer's letter dated 10 May 1813 announcing proceedings on two unnamed articles. Murray had written to Gifford in April, 1813 to state his opinion that Persia is the last thing on people's minds and Horace Twiss the last person who should appear in the Quarterly. See entry for #237 in the Shine volume. Marchand, Byron's Letters II, 191n: 'Horace Twiss, a contributor of squibs to the newspapers, whose literary pretensions made him the butt of ridicule.'

  • BL MS. 28099 (f.99), WG to George Ellis, 3 Mar. 1812: 'I gave Coutts £25.11.9.' (That is enough for two articles, probably for #179 and possible for #155.) Thomas Coutts, No. 59, Strand, was Ellis's banker (see BL MS. 28099, ff.123-24, WG to Ellis, 14 May 1814)

  • Items for 1812 from Jack Lynch's literary resources page, with additions:

    • Napoleon launches a massive invasion of Russia and takes Moscow, but is forced to retreat with terrible losses. An attempt by General Malet to install Louis XVIII as king in Napoleon's absence fails; Malet is executed.
    • The United States Congress declares war on Great Britain. Naval conflict begins immediately but maneuvers on land are slow to ensue.
    • British Prime Minister Perceval is assassinated in the House of Commons  on 11 May 1814. His death is greeted with enthusiasm by some parts of the general populace. His Tory ministry is succeeded by that of Lord Liverpool.
    • Dissenting clergy are relieved of disabilities.
    • The waltz, imported from the Continent, causes a storm of moral protest.  Byron, disapproving of the craze, writes 'The Waltz'.
    • Byron publishes Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Cantos I-II (see QR #189).
    • Humphry Davy publishes Elements of Chemical Philosophy.
    • Charles Dickens and  Robert Browning born this year.

     

  • Important or especially interesting articles in this Number include: #172, #175 (Whitaker on Stonehenge), #176, #177 (an infamous article in which Gifford called Charles Lamb a 'poor maniac'), #179

  • Number of definite attributions for this issue: 10

  • Number of probable or possible attributions for this issue: 1

CONTENTS, IDENTIFICATION OF CONTRIBUTORS, AND HISTORICAL NOTES


169 Article 1. The History of the Inquisitions; including the Secret Transactions of those Horrific Tribunals. Illustrated with twelve plates; Letter upon the Mischievous Influence of the Spanish Inquisition as it actually exists in the Provinces under the Spanish Government. Translated from El Español, a periodical Spanish Journal published in London; Narrativa da Perseguiçam de Hippolyto Joseph Da Costa Pereira Furtado de Mendonça, Natural da Colonia do Sacramento, no Rio-da-Prata, prezo e Processado em Lisboa pelo pretenso Crime de Fra-Maçon, ou Pedreiro Livre, 313-57. Author: Robert Southey.

Running Title: Tracts on the Spanish and Portugueze Inquisitions.

Notes:  In attributing the article to Southey, Shine cites JM III's Register; Warter II 241, 267; Cottle 242-43; and Southey 577. Shine says to see also Warter II 236 and Smiles I 198. Shine quotes from the following letters. BL MS. 28603 [no folio number given], Robert Southey to William Peachey, 13 Feb. 1812: 'The last Quarterly has two excellent articles by Barrow upon the Russian circumnavigation, and our Eastern conquests. Those upon Montgomery & the Inquisition are mine.' BL MS. 30928 [no folio number given], Southey to Charles Danvers, 9 May 1812: 'There was one article of mine in the last Quarterly upon the Inquisition containing a good deal of knowledge which probably no other person in this country possessed, collected in great part from Portuguese manuscripts.' 

The following information and evidence is published here for the first time. The article appears in Southey's definitive MS. list of his QR articles. Murray MS., William Drummond to JM, 28 Feb. 1812, complains bitterly that by this article the QR has itself become an Inquisition censuring private religious opinions. Portuguese is spelled in the article's running title as above.

[Bookseller's note on History of the Inquisitions, modified: An interesting history of the inquisitions and their tribunals from the time of Constantine to the beginning of the nineteenth century. This work deals with various aspects and powers of the tribunals, causes for which and pretences under which people could be charged, forms of torture and death for specific and general sentences, and individuals' accounts.]

JM II's marked QR: 'Southey'. 

JM III's Register: attribution to Southey, but without evidence.


170 Article 2. Krusenstern, Reise um die Welt in den jahre 1803-4-5 und 6, auf befeld seiner Kaiserl. Majestat Alexanders des Ersten, auf den Schiffen Nadeshda und Newa, &c. A Voyage Round the World in the years 1803-4-5 and 6, by command of His Imperial Majesty Alexander I. in the Ships Nadeshda and Neva, under the orders of Captain A. I. Von Kursenstern. Published in the Russian and German languages, 357-91. Authors: John Barrow and John Hoppner.

Running Title: Russian Embassy to Japan.

Notes: In attributing the article to Barrow, Shine cites JM III's Register. Shine says to see also Smiles I 198. Shine quotes from the following letters. Murray MS., WG to JM, [26 Nov. 1811; notation on letter in JM II's hand: 'Barrow whose Review was made from the MSS of Hoppner.'] 'Barrow has contrived to make out a most excellent article of Krusenstern ....' Murray MS., WG to JM, [6 Dec. 1811; notation on letter in JM II's hand identifies article as Krusenstern]: 'I send ... more of Barrow's amusing article.'  Murray MS, WG to JM, [26 Jan. 1812; notation on letter, after 'Mr B': 'Barrow whose review was made from the mss of Hoppner.']: 'I send a chapter of Krusenstern .... The pencil marks are not meant for any thing. They were merely made to Mr B to mark the progress of translation.' BL MS. 28603 [no folio number given], Robert Southey to William Peachey, 13 Feb. 1812: 'The last Quarterly has two excellent articles by Barrow upon the Russian circumnavigation, and our Eastern conquests. Those upon Montgomery & the Inquisition are mine.' 

The following evidence is published here for the first time. National Maritime Museum MS., LBK/65/1, (ff.92-93), John Barrow to Lord Walpole, [c. Mar.] 1812 [copy], says that Walpole is sending Barrow the third volume of Krusenstern's Voyage. Barrow hopes Lord Walpole was satisfied with the QR's articles on volumes I and II. Article #170 is referred to in articles #178, #190, #255, #299, and #517 (twice), all of which are also by Barrow. In his QR articles, it was Barrow's signature practice to refer to his own works. Note the discussion of cannibalism (p.371), similar to Barrow's treatment of the topic elsewhere (for example, #165).

[Bookseller's note, modified, with quotation from Hill collection, p. 167: 'Captain Kruzenstern, appointed to command the first Russian round-the-world expedition, serving with him a brilliant corps of officers. The expedition was to attempt to "open relations with Nippon and the Sandwich Islands, to facilitate trade with South America, to examine California for a possible colony, and make a thorough study and report of the Northwest coast." The official account of the first Russian expedition to circumnavigate the globe. The introduction contains information about the state of Russian commerce during the eighteenth century, the Russian voyages  in the Northern Ocean, and the Russian fur trade. Kruzenstern took the first Russian embassy of Nikolai Rezanov to Japan; while not successful in establishing diplomatic or trading relations with Japan, the published knowledge of the Japanese was increased very much thereby.']

JM III's Register: attribution to Barrow and with the following note: 'W G's letter Nov 26/11 & Jan 26/12 "B's review was made from the Mss of Hoppner."'


171 Article 3. Courayer, Traité où l'on expose ce que l'Ecriture nous apprend de la Divinité de Jésus Christ [edited by William Bell], 391-405. Author: John Ireland.

Running Title: Courayer sur la Divinité de Jésus Christ.

Notes: In attributing the article to Ireland, Shine cites the queried attribution to Ireland in JM III's Register. Shine also quotes from the following letters. Murray MS., WG to JM, [24 Dec. 1811]: 'You have ... the article of Russia, carefully corrected except about 8 or ten lines which begin the sheet containing the Drs article, & which I am now correcting.' Murray MS., WG to JM, [3 Jan. 1813]: 'I want Dr Ireland's revise.'

The following information and evidence is published here for the first time. Devon MS. 1149M (ff.103-4), WG to Edward Copleston, 12 Feb. 1812: 'Our friend, Dr Ireland, gave me the article on Bell.' Dr. William Bell (1731-1816) edited the volume under review.

JM III's Register: queries its attribution to Ireland, with this note: 'See W G's letters Dec 14 / 11 & Jan 3/12'.


172 Article 4. Montgomery, The West Indies, and other Poems and The Wanderer in Switzerland, and other Poems, 405-19. Author: Robert Southey.

Running Title: Montgomery's Poems.

Notes: In attributing the article to Southey, Shine cites JM III's Register; Warter II 251; Cottle 242-43; Southey 577; Gentleman's Magazine XXI 138; and Graham 41. Shine says to see also Smiles 1 198 and Warter II 242, 258. Shine quotes from BL MS. 28603 [no folio number given], Robert Southey to William Peachey, 13 Feb. 1812: 'The last Quarterly has two excellent articles by Barrow upon the Russian circumnavigation, and our Eastern conquests. Those upon Montgomery & the Inquisition are mine.'

The following information is published here for the first time. This review appears in Southey's definitive MS. list of his QR articles. Francis Jeffrey's sarcastic review of Montgomery in the Edinburgh Review (#332, Jan. 1807) greatly offended Southey. Jeffrey's review was a key reason behind Southey's refusal in late 1807 to write for the Edinburgh when Walter Scott, at Jeffrey's request, asked him to do so. In 1808, Southey cited his wish to avenge Jeffrey's Montgomery review as one of his primary motivations for supporting Murray's new journal.

[Bookseller's note: "Written to commemorate the abolition of the slave trade. The title piece sketches the history of the islands, the misery of the blacks, the work of the missionaries and abolitionists, and the ending of the traffic which was to mark the beginning of an era of general better feeling, understanding and happiness for all" - Ragatz.]

JM III's Register: attribution to Southey, but without evidence.


173 Article 5. Ensor, On National Education, 419-33. Author: Edward Copleston.

Running Title: Ensor on National Education.

Notes: In attributing the article to Copleston, Shine cites Copleston 347. In suggesting George Canning as an alternative attribution, Shine cites JM III's Register and Gentleman's Magazine XXI 138 and says to see also Smiles I 198. 

The following evidence is published here for the first time. The entry in Shine is a rare example of that volume's not accepting an attribution in JM III's Register (see also #176 in this Number). The attribution to Copleston, asserted in William James Copleston, Memoir of Edward Copleston (1851), is confirmed here by evidence from WG's letters preserved in the Devon PRO. 

Devon MS. 1149M (f.91), WG to Edward Copleston, 31 May 1811, suggests 'Ensor' as a topic Copleston might wish to take up. Devon 1149M (f.102), WG to Copleston, 7 Dec. 1811, thanks him for his 'little Art.,' the proofs of which he hopes to send on in a few days. 'I like the tone of it, which accords well with our plan; though the man (as far as personally concerned) deserved no mitigation of terms. Croker, who knows him, tells me that he is an officer of cavalry, & just what his book shews him to be—'. 

Systems of education formed the subject of ER #577, Nov. 1811, by Henry Brougham.

JM III's Register: attribution to George Canning, but without evidence.


174 Article 6. Smith, A Short Inquiry as to the Competency of Witnesses with reference to their Religious Opinions; Smith, An Attempt to shew that Witnesses under Cross-examination ought not to be required to bear Testimony to their own Disgrace; Smith, Some Observations on that part of the Law of Evidence which relates to the Proof of Deeds, 433-39. Author: John Wilson Croker.

Running Title: Baron Smith—On the Competency of Witnesses.

Notes: In attributing the article to Croker, Shine cites JM III's Register and Brightfield 453 and says to see also Smiles I 198. 

The following evidence is published here for the first time. Claimed by Croker in five of his Clements Library lists and included in the Cambridge Library bound volumes of his articles.

JM III's Register: attribution to Croker, but without evidence.


175 Article 7. Hoare, History of Ancient Wiltshire. Part II, 440-48. Author: Thomas Dunham Whitaker.

Running Title: Hoare's Ancient Wiltshire.

Notes: In attributing the article to Whitaker, Shine cites JM III's Register and Nichols xxix. Shine also quotes from Murray MS., WG to JM, [26 Nov. 1811]: 'Whitaker has sent an article on Stonehenge–sober & judicious.' 

The following evidence is published here for the first time. The article's author, in the first sentence of the review, refers to #135, which is also by Whitaker. 

[Bookseller's note: 'A work which was an important step towards objective methods in field archaeology and established Colt Hoare's reputation as an archaeologist. Sir Richard Colt Hoare (1758-1838) was the grandson of Henry Hoare, the banker, who had laid out the gardens at Stourhead. At the beginning Colt Hoare was only called upon to finance Cunnington's enterprise of recording all that could be discovered about the inhabitants of Wiltshire from prehistoric to Roman times. In the course of the preparations though he aquired a rapidly growing interest and knowledge, became a collaborator, and was soon described by a fellow enthusiast as "barrow mad". Colt Hoare wrote the work with the support of William Cunnington who had assembled much of the archeological information on excavation sites but died in 1810. Stephen and John Parker did the actual excavation work, while Philip Crocker made all the surveys and executed the detailed drawings for the plates. For a full account of Colt Hoare's life and archaeological pursuits, see K. Woodbridge, Landscape and Antiquity, Oxford, 1970.']

JM II's marked QR: 'Rev. Dr Whittaker'.

JM III's Register: attribution to Whitaker.


176 Article 8. Buchanan, Christian Researches in Asia, 448-62. Author: Thomas Dunham Whitaker, probably.

Running Title: Buchanan's Christian Researches in Asia.

Notes: In attributing the article to Whitaker, Shine cites Nichols xxix. In suggesting John Bird Sumner as a queried alternative attribution, Shine cites JM III's Register. Shine also quotes from Murray MS., WG to JM, [26 Jan. 1812; notation on the letter: 'To Mr Turner <Sumner> an excuse for not using his article on Buchanans Xian Researches']: 'You shall have your letter tomorrow.'

The following evidence and discussion is published here for the first time. The entry in Shine is a rare example of that volume's not accepting an attribution in JM III's Register (see also #173 in this Number). Murray MS., George Ellis to JM, 22 July [1810], says he would like to review Buchanan's pamphlet (i.e., an earlier work on Indian evangelization). Buchanan was a highly influential advocate for Christianizing India. His interventions on behalf of the cause indirectly contributed to the founding of the Quarterly Review.

[Bookseller's note: 'A work describing Christian missions to the Orient, including China, India, Ceylon, Malaya, Persia, Arabia, Armenia and other areas. The book describes practices that have been deterred by encroaching Christianity, including bride burning and idol worship in India. A fascinating book including not only a description of the natives of the areas visited, but such groups as Syrian Christians in India, Romish Christians in India, Jews in Asia, Black Jews, The Ten Tribes of Israel, and much more.']

JM III's Register: queried attribution to John Bird Sumner and with the following note: '?Mr Turner's art. on this seems to have been forestalled & declined. See W G's Jany 26/12. See Mr Sumners letter Dec 20 1811.'


177 Article 9. Weber, The Dramatic Works of Ford; with an Introduction and Explanatory Notes; Gilchrist, A Letter to William Gifford, Esq. on a late Edition of Ford's Plays, chiefly as relating to Ben Jonson; A Letter to J. P. Kemble, Esq. involving Strictures on a recent Edition of Ford's Dramatic Works, 462-87. Authors: Octavius Gilchrist, William Gifford, and Barron Field, with George Ellis.

Running Title: Ford's Dramatic Works, by Weber.

Notes: In co-attributing the article to William Gifford and Barron Field, Shine cites JM III's Register and Smiles I  200-1 [Quarterly Review Archive editor's note: asserts Field and Gifford, but probably depends upon JM III and by extension JM II]. Shine also quotes from the following letters. Murray MS., WG to JM, n.d.: 'I have lost Gilchrist's letter & do not recollect to whom—pray send me a copy... & I will then complete the Article.' Murray MS., WG to JM, [8 Jan. 1812; notation on letter: 'Weber Ford Plays']: 'Certainly what I have is curious—and I can make the other sheet good ...' Murray MS., WG to JM, [18 Jan. 1812]: 'Mr C is already as <?> is the revision of Ford.' Morgan MS., Robert Southey to [Moxon], 19 July 1837: Gifford's calling Lamb insane was not intentional. In suggesting William Gifford alone as an alternative attribution, Shine cites Gentleman's Magazine XXI 138; Graham 41; Graham in SP XXII 508; Clark 156, 156n, 190-91, 222-23; and Pfeiffer in PQ XI 411. Shine says to see also Southey 417n; Robinson I 62-63; Clark 187, 273n; and QR CCX 759.

Some of the following evidence was first published in VPR 27; additional discussion is published here for the first time. Gilchrist was the primary author of the review (despite his denial to Philip Bliss; see letter of 23 June 1811 below); Gifford made some significant additions; the extent of Field's role is not entirely clear. The most certain evidence that Gilchrist, not Field or WG, was the primary author of the article is Gilchrist's being paid £16.11.3 for it (see in particular Murray MS., WG to Gilchrist, 13 Feb. 1812, quoted below). The article is remarkable for WG's disturbing characterization in it of the writer Charles Lamb as a 'poor maniac' (pg. 485). Southey, Lamb's friend, confronted WG who convinced Southey that Lamb was to him only a name, that he knew nothing about the writer's chronic mental illness (Southey's Correspondence V 151). It appears that Gilchrist, but probably not Barron Field, may have been complicit in the calumny against Lamb, if such it was. See also Marrs, Letters of Charles and Mary Anne Lamb III 131-33n. Southey convinced Lamb to contribute to the QR a review of Wordsworth's Excursion. Lamb did so and it was published as #315. See also the discussion at #315.

BL MS. 28099 (f.93), WG to George Ellis, 19 Feb. 1811, WG is displeased at Scott's pledge to review Weber, because he thinks Scott lacks knowledge of the old language. Murray MS., WG to Octavius Gilchrist, 29 May 1811, asks Gilchrist to look over George Ellis's (unsatisfactory because too sympathetic) notes on Ford, and to add material on Weber, 'a young man toiling for bread for the booksellers' and therefore deserving of tolerance. BL MS. 34567, Bliss correspondence, (ff.222-23), Octavius Gilchrist to Philip Bliss, 23 June 1811: ' ... Mr Weber's edition of Ford's plays, which I had long since promised Gifford to review for the Quarterly. I have however been so annoyed by his attacks upon Ben that I could not have kept up the style—Royal office, but should have "thrust my head through the lion's skin and cryed [sic] Jn' [sic] Bottom the weaver"; I thought it better to leave those volumes to a more dispassionate hand and vent my spleen in another pamphlet.' [The style Gilchrist speaks of is third person—dispassionate, disinterested, and imperious. Gilchrist takes a comic turn on the legend of Heracles and the lion of Nemeios; he states that were he, like Heracles, to slay the beast (in this case, Weber) he would don, not the skin of a lion, but, like Bottom in Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream, the head of an ass.] Murray MS., WG to Gilchrist, Wednesday [therefore the 5th, 12th, 19th, or 26th], June 1811, says that he will add to Gilchrist's critique of Weber. BL MS. 34567 (f. 248), Gilchrist to Bliss, 2 Sept. 1811: 'I am making an article for the Quarterly.' [The reference is possibly to #166.] Murray MS., WG to Gilchrist, 3 Sept. 1811:  'I certainly wish for something on Weber. ... I will take the drudgery & leave you to comment on the original. ... Remember, that I must not be mentioned as having any thing to do with Weber—the guilt must lie on you—or G.E. will scold.' Devon MS. 1149M (ff.103-4), to Edward Copleston, 12 Feb. 1812: 'If you look at the critical part of Ford's article, I hope that you will not think I have been too hard on Weber.' Murray MS., WG to Gilchrist, 13 Feb. 1812: 'I have for you, for your article on Weber, 16.11.3. ... P.S. [dated 17 Feb.] Did your friend Field write the article on Weber in the Criti[cal]. Rev[iew].' John Murray was publisher of two of the volumes listed in the head note for review, A Letter to William Gifford and A Letter to J. P. Kemble.

Mr. Ronald Solomon, who is writing a biography of Barron Field, in private correspondence with the present writer supplies evidence for Field's friendship with Gilchrist and for Field's probable participation in #177. Solomon reports that 'In Field's The Reflector article on "Early and Late Hours," at p. 109 he wrote, "With the assistance of my friend, Mr. Gilchrist, I have gleaned a few more minute proofs ...." Gilchrist's article preceded this article of Field's in The Reflector. Field [probably] assisted Gilchrist with article #177 just as Gilchrist worked with Field on his contribution to The Reflector. Field's part in #177 may have been the correction of Weber's reprint from about p. 477.' Solomon notices that 'from p. 477 on, the style is typical of Field's critical writings, on Wordsworth and Dawson Turner as examples. He owned a 21 volume "Variorum Shakespeare" referred to at p. 478. It is now in the State Library of New South Wales with many of his text notes. [Field] did not approve of Reed and Steevens. Neither did the reviewer at p. 478: "Steevens is a dangerous guide."' Solomon points out that 'in the conclusion of Article #112 the reviewer advocates the adoption of improved orthography, much the same as does the reviewer at p.480 of Article #177.' Concerning Field's having had prior knowledge of WG's calling Lamb a 'poor maniac,' Solomon concludes that 'Barron Field and Charles Lamb were close friends. Field was usually a champion of any friend's interests, and it is hard to imagine that he conspired in a slander or stood back from it.'

JM II's marked QR: 'Baron Field but in fact Gifford'.

JM III's Register: with the following note:  'Barron Field but in fact Gifford', but does not indicate that the source of this information is  JM II's marked QR.


178 Article 10. Tombe, Voyages aux Indes Orientales, pendant les années 1802-3-4-5 & 6, &c. &c. Revu et augmenté de plusieurs Notes et Eclaircissemens, par M. Sonnini; Sketches, Civil and Military, of the Island and Java and its immediate Dependencies; comprizing interesting Details of Batavia, and authentic Particulars of the celebrated Poison-tree. Illustrated with a Map, &c., 487-517. Author: John Barrow, with Charles PhilipYorke and Spencer Perceval.

Running Title: On Java and its Dependencies.

Notes: In attributing the article to Barrow,  Shine cites JM III's Register. Shine also quotes from the following letters. Murray MS., WG to JM, [24 Jan. 1812; notation on letter in JM II's hand: 'Mr Yorke and Mr Perceval, who were very much afraid that they had allowed Barrow to say too much respecting the future intervention of Government, in regard to their late conquest of Java, in Mr Barrow's article upon the subject. The sheets were however returned on Sunday Jan 26th without any important change.' Shine states: 'Barrow's authorship is indubitable: 11 other MS letters from Gifford to Murray bear upon it, 7 of them annotated.' Shine also quotes from BL MS., 28603 [no folio number given], Robert Southey to William Peachey, 13 Feb. 1812: 'The last Quarterly has two excellent articles by Barrow upon the Russian circumnavigation, and our Eastern conquests. Those upon Montgomery & the Inquisition are mine.'

The following evidence is published here for the first time. Concerning Barrow's having been allowed by Government to say too much on the possibility of British intervention in Java, see the discussion in the article of British colonial policy on pp.497ff. Devon MS. 1149M (f.105), WG to Edward Copleston, 4 Feb. 1812: 'Our delay has arisen in some measure from Government, who expressed some anxiety about the Article on Java, on the fate of which they have scarcely made up their minds, though their first determination was that to which we have alluded ....' The article's author refers back to #139 and #170, both of which are also by Barrow. In his QR articles, it was Barrow's signature practiced to refer to his own works. The word 'comprising' is spelled in the article's head note as above.

JM III's Register: attribution to Barrow and with the following note: 'See W G's letters Jany 3/12 & Jany 5/12'.


179 Article 11. Trotter, Memoirs of the latter Years of the Right Honourable Charles James Fox, with a Postscript, 518-56. Authors: George Ellis and George Canning.

Running Title: Trotter's Memoirs of the Rt. Hon. C. J. Fox.

Notes: In co-attributing the article to Canning and Ellis (in that order), Shine cites JM III's Register; Marriot 146: 'by Canning (perhaps assisted by Ellis)'; and Smiles I 199. Shine also quotes from the following letters. Murray MS., WG to JM, [1 Jan. 1812; notation on letter: 'Mr C & G E on Trotter's Fox & Canning's speech.']: 'Nothing is come today—but we need not fear, as they are at work.' Murray MS., WG to JM, [6 Jan. 1812]: '... Trotter ... will be most excellent ... Mr C is ... at Mr C[harles] Ellis's .... send the whole there ... [C goes to Sunning Hill, where ] the Article will be completed on Saturday ....' Murray MS., WG to JM, [20 Jan. 1812]: 'Trotter ... I thought it right ... to say a word of Pitt, & therefore sent to our friend at 1200 o'clock to put something in ....' Murray MS., WG to JM, [20 Jan. 1812; notation on letter: 'Sketch of character of Pitt in Trotter's Life of Fox']: 'Mr ___ is now with me & has brought what I wished.' Murray MS., WG to JM, [24 Jan. 1812; notation on letter: 'Trotter's Mem. Fox.']: 'I shall have the revise from Mr Canning today ...' Murray MS., WG to JM, [26 Jan. 1812; notation on letter: 'Canning—3 pages Trotter affixed to above']: 'The last, of course, you will not print off till it returns from Mr C.' Shine states that 'Seven other MS letters from Gifford to Murray (6 of them annotated) bear upon authorship: none of them specific about Ellis.' 

The following evidence is published here for the first time. The Devon PRO letters, quoted below, describe precisely the extent of Canning's contribution. The article's author refers to #114, Robert Grant's review of John Gifford's Life of Pitt, which WG described to Canning as 'our manifesto.' Devon MS. 1149M (f.101), WG to Edward Copleston, 28 Oct. 1811: 'Trotter, which would have fitted him [Lord Dudley, Copleston's friend] admirably, Canning found in my room several days ago, & carried it to Sunning Hill for Geo. Ellis.' Murray MS., Book Loans Register: the book reviewed was sent to 'G. Ellis, Sunning Hill' on 8 Nov. 1811. Devon MS. 1149 (ff.103-4), WG to Copleston, 12 Feb. 1812: 'You are right in you conjecture. Canning wrote the last part of the article, the character of Pitt &c. in the chair in which I am now sitting.' BL MS. 28099 (f.99), WG to George Ellis, 3 Mar. 1812: WG asks for comments on the recent Number. 'The main article (as all agree—indeed I have not heard of a single exception), is Trotter ... I gave Coutts £25.11.9.' Devon MS. 1149M (f.106), WG to Copleston, 3 Mar. 1812: Lord Dudley through Copleston complained to WG that this topic had been taken away from him through 'inattention and wanton neglect.' WG responded in that letter, 'It may be that I waited for George [Ellis]'s letter—for Canning had taken the book from me, to tempt him—but this is conjecture, and the impression on my mind was that I had mentioned the preoccupation of Trotter either to you or to your friend.' [As indeed he had.] 'I have no doubt that I was mistaken and I sincerely regret it.'

JM II's marked QR: 'Entirely by Canning'.

JM III's Register: 'Geo Canning? & G Ellis' and with the following note: 'W G 's letter Jan 1, 1812'.

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