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Quarterly Review Archive

Quarterly Review
VOLUME 28 , NUMBER 55 (October 1822)


NOTES

  • This Number was published on or about 15 Feb. 1823 [Courier advertisement, 15 Feb. 1823; NLS MS., 3896 (f.44), WG to Walter Scott, 13 Feb. 1823: QR will be published next day; Present writer's collection: Anne Cleaver, an original subscriber, entered on page 1 of this Number '15 Feb. 1823.'; Bodleian MS., Eng. lett. c.1 (f. 114), Robert Southey to John Taylor Coleridge, 17 Feb. 1823: QR came today; Murray MS., Bills: 15 Feb. 1823]

  • 'The Quarterly Review, No. LV, which the ill health of the Editor has delayed, is nearly ready for publication' [Courier advertisement, 16 Jan. 1823, repeated on the 17th, 22nd, 23rd, 24th, 27th, and 30th]

  • Murray MS., WG to JM, [1 Mar. 1822 postmark], says that 'Hone' will call again, 'without introduction, at 12' on Saturday. William Hone (1780-1842), publisher, was attacked in #589 and #714 for his translation of the Apocryphal New Testament

  • Murray MS., WG to JM, [July 1823]: 'I desired the Bishop of Calcutta [Reginald Heber] to leave his fragments with you—has he done it? I fear not, as you do not mention it.' [see #665]

  • Items for 1823 from Jack Lynch's literary resources page, slightly modified:

    • French troops invade Spain, leading to a general civil war. King Ferdinand is eventually returned to an absolutist position, whereupon he restores the Inquisition and suspends political liberties. (See QR #674, 683)
    • Declarations of independence from Spain in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Mexico. Simon Bolivar enters Lima and proclaims himself dictator of Peru. (See QR #674, #701)
    • Criminal code is liberalized.
    • Prosperity returns to the British economy; Government issues budgets that encourage freer trade.
    • President Monroe promulgates the Monroe Doctrine, excluding European political influence in the Western Hemisphere
    • Slaves in Demerara revolt, straining relations between the Liverpool government and evangelical parliamentarians (the Saints) under the leadership of William Wilberforce. (See QR #691 and #719)
    • John Franklin publishes Narrative of a Journey to the Polar Sea (see QR #667).
    • Westminster Review, a radical journal, is founded to combat the Quarterly and the Edinburgh.
    • Byron publishes Don Juan, VI-XIV; Leigh Hunt publishes Ultra-Crepidarius, an attack on William Gifford; Scott publishes Quentin Durward; Carlyle publishes The Life of Schiller.
  • Important or otherwise interesting articles in this Number include: #649, #657, #659 (Barrow on Champollion and hieroglyphs), #660, #661 (on Napoleon's exile; Wellington contributed materials and vetted the MS. article)

  • Number of definite attributions for this issue: 11

  • Number of articles for which no suggestion of authorship is made: 2

CONTENTS, IDENTIFICATION OF CONTRIBUTORS, AND HISTORICAL NOTES


649 Article 1. Grégoire, Histoire des Sectes Religieuses qui depuis le Commencement du Siècle dernier jusqu' à l'Epoque actuelle, sont nées, se sont modifiées, se sont éteintes dans les quarte parties du Monde, 1-46. Author: Robert Southey

Running Title: Gregoire—History of Religious Sects.

Notes: In attributing the article to Southey, Shine cites JM III's Register and Cottle 243-43. 

The following evidence is published here for the first time. The article appears in Southey's definitive MS. list of his QR articles. Ramos 198. 

JM III's Register: attribution to Southey, but without evidence.


650 Article 2. The Works of the Right Honourable Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, K.B., from the Originals in the possession of his Grandson the Right Honourable the Earl of Essex: with Notes, by Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford, 46-59. Author: John Wilson Croker.

Running Title: Sir C. H. Williams's Works.

Notes: In attributing the article to Croker, Shine cites JM III's Register and Brightfield 455. 

The following evidence is published here for the first time. Murray MS., Cash Book 1821-24: the same person was paid for articles 2 and 13 in this Number. Clements Library MS., Croker Papers, Letters Index entry: '1822 ... 8 June review of Walpole.' Murray MS., John Wilson Croker to JM, 24 Nov. 1812. Claimed by Croker in four of his Clements Library MS. lists and included in the Cambridge University bound volumes of Croker's articles. 

JM III's Register: attribution to Croker, but without evidence.


651 Article 3. Voyage à l'Oasis de Thèbes et dans les Déserts situés à l'Orient et à l'Occident de la Thébaide, faits pendant les Années 1815, 1816, 1817 et 1818. Par M. Frédéric Cailliaud; et le Voyage à l'Oasis du Dakel; par M. Le Chevalier Drovetti, Consul-Général de France en Egypte; rédigé et publié par M. Jomard, &c.; Edmonstone, A Journey to Two of the Oases of Upper Egypt; Henniker, Notes, during a Visit to Egypt, Nubia and the Oasis, Mount Sinai and Jerusalem; Richardson, Travels along the Mediterranean and Parts adjacent; in company with the Earl of Belmore, during the Years 1816, 17, and 18: extending as far as the Second Cataract of the Nile, Jerusalem, Damascus, Balbec, &c.; Saulnier, Notice sur le Voyage de M. Lelorrain en Egypte; et Observations sur le Zodiaque Circulaire de Denderah; Saint-Martin, Notice sur le Zodiaque de Denderah; Nouvelles Considérations sur le Planisphère de Dendera, &c. &c.; A Narrative of the Expedition to Dongola and Sennaar, under the Command of His Excellence Ismael Pasha, undertaken by Order of His Highness Mehemmed Ali Pasha, Viceroy of Egypt. By an American in the Service of the Viceroy, 60-97. Author: John Barrow.

Running Title: Egypt, Nubia, Berber, and Sennaar.

Notes: In attributing the article to Barrow, Shine cites JM III's Register and Gentleman's Magazine XXI 579. 

The following evidence is published here for the first time. Murray MS., Cash Book 1821-24: the same person was paid for articles 3, 5, 8, 9, and 11 in this Number. Murray MS., John Barrow to JM, 25 Dec. 1822, says that Henniker's book is in danger of being reviewed before the book is published. The article's author refers to #486, #531 (twice), and #636, all of which are by Barrow. In his QR articles, it was Barrow's signature practice to refer to his own works. John Murray published Edmonstone's and Henniker's volumes.

[Bookseller's note on Edmonstone: 'Advised by Belzoni, the British explorer, Archibald Edmonstone (1795-1871), travelled to the oases of Dakhla and Karga in 1819. Edmonstone's map is the first to show the correct geographical position of these oases.']

[Bookseller's note on Henniker: 'The traveller Sir Frederick Henniker (1793-1825) … travelled through France and Italy to Malta and then to Alexandria and Upper Egypt, Nubia, and the Oasis Boeris. Henniker visited Egypt in 1820; he was the first known person to climb the Second Pyramid. After revisiting Cairo he went to Mount Sinai and Jerusalem, Lebanon, and Cyprus, returning home by Smyrna, Athens, Constantinople and Vienna.']

JM III's Register: attribution to Barrow, but without evidence.


652  Article 4. Jouy, Sylla. Tragédie en Cinq Actes, 4me Edition, 97-111. Author: John Taylor Coleridge.

Running Title: M. Jouy—Sylla.

Notes: In attributing the article to Coleridge, Shine cites only JM III's Register.

The following evidence is published here for the first time. Murray MS., WG to John Taylor Coleridge, 18 Feb. 1823, says he thinks Coleridge's little article will be well received. Bodleian MS. d. 130 (ff. 64-65), Thomas Arnold to Coleridge, 1 Mar. 1823, says he has read Coleridge's article on 'Sylla'.

JM III's Register: attribution to Coleridge, but without evidence.


653  Article 5. Crawfurd, History of the Indian Archipelago. With Maps and Engravings; Proceedings of the Agricultural Society, established in Sumatra. Vol. I; Malayan Miscellanies. Vol. I, 111-38. Author: John Barrow, probably with Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles.

Running Title: The Indian Archipelago.

Notes: In co-attributing the article to Barrow and Raffles, Shine cites JM III's Register and Gentleman's Magazine XXI 579. Shine also quotes from Murray MS., WG to JM, [Ramsgate, 19 July 1822 postmark]: '[Barrow] is very anxious for the article on Crawford which he & Marden say is sound & good; I suppose therefore it must be inserted, especially as Sir T Raffles is coming home & he expects much assistance from him. The paper is not very brisk, but tis sensible.' 

The following evidence is published here for the first time. Murray MS., Cash Book 1821-24: the same person was paid for articles 3, 5, 8, 9, and 11 in this Number. On the basis of available evidence, it is not possible unequivocally to co-attribute the article to Raffles.

[Bookseller's note, silently modified: 'A fascinating in-depth and highly reliable primary resource, written after Crawfurd's first stay at Pinang from 1808 to 1811 as a surgeon with the East India Company, and at Java from 1811 to 1817 as a senior political functionary and civil servant. The DNB describes it as "a work of sterling value and great interest" containing much about Java and the Philippines and their trade with China, Arabia, and Europe, as well as the people and their language. Of particular note is the discussion of the Indian islanders' passion for opium, opium's manner of use and preparation, prices and quantity imported, the introduction of Turkish opium, a history of the opium trade, and the drug's pernicious effects.']

JM III's Register: 'Sir Stamford Raffles & J. Barrow,' but without evidence.


654  Article 6. Irish Melodies, by Thomas Moore, Esq. with an Appendix containing the original Advertisements, and the Prefatory Letter on Music, 139-44. Author: Henry Taylor.

Running Title: Moore's Irish Melodies.

Notes: In attributing the article to Taylor, Shine inexplicably does not cite JM III's Register. Shine cites Taylor I 41-42; DNB; Graham 41; and Kunitz 605. Shine says see also Simmons 179. 

The following information is published here for the first time. The article's author refers to #201, which is by Horace Twiss. 

JM III's Register: [in pencil] 'Sir H. Taylor', but without evidence. 


655  Article 7. Whately, The Use and Abuse of Party-Feeling in Matters of Religion considered, in Eight Sermons, preached before the University of Oxford, in the Year 1822, at the Lecture founded by the late Rev. John Bampton, M.A. Canon of Salisbury, 144-57. Author not identified.

Running Title: Whately—Party-Feeling in Matters of Religion.

Notes: In the absence of guidance from JM III's Register, Shine does not suggest an author for this article but says to see Heber II 62, 82. Shine also quotes from Murray MS., WG to JM, [19 July 1822 postmark]: 'I have received from another unknown hand a good paper on Whately's Bampton Lectures.'

The following information is published here for the first time. The Shine volume quotes from the following letter under its entry for #701. Murray MS., WG to JM, [July 1823]: 'I desired the Bishop of Calcutta [Reginald Heber] to leave his fragments with you—has he done it? I fear not, as you do not mention it.' A divine named Collinson (perhaps Septimus or John Collinson) certainly published in the QR in this period, but no article has been identified as from his pen. See John Wilson Croker to John Murray, Brighton, 29 March 1823 (quoted in Smiles II 57-58): ' ... remember the necessity of absolute secrecy on this point, and indeed on all others. If you were to publish such names as Cohen and Croker and Collinson and Coleridge, the magical WE would have little effect, and your Review would be absolutely despised—omne ignotum pro mirifico.' Note untranslated Greek (p.156). Perhaps the review was by one of the Oriel Noetics: Copleston, Hawkins, Hampden, or Arnold. (Whately was a member of that informal group.) 


656  Article 8. A Sketch of the Mosquito Shore, including the Territories of the Poyais, descriptive of the Country; with some Information as to its Productions, the best Mode of Culture, &c. chiefly intended for the Use of Settlers. By Thomas Strangeways, K.G.C. Captain First Poyer Native Regiment, and Aide-de-Camp to His Highness Gregor, Cazique of Poyais, 157-61. Author: John Barrow.

Running Title: The Poyais Bubble.

Notes: In attributing the article to Barrow, Shine cites only JM III's Register. 

The following evidence is published here for the first time. Murray MS., Cash Book 1821-24: the same person was paid for articles 3, 5, 8, 9, and 11 in this Number. Gentleman's Magazine (Mar. 1844), 246-47. On the first page of article #656, the author mentions 'Barrow's Strait.' Barrow was prone to self-promotion. Article #656 is one in a series of debunking articles by Barrow.

[Booksellers' notes, silently modified: 'This volume is the basis of the recently published book, Sir Gregor MacGregor and the Land That Never Was (2003). It is a first-hand look into one of the most fraudulent schemes of the early 19th Century. Supposedly written by Gregor MacGregor himself, this book reinforced the myth of foreign hopes and bounty like none before it.' 'Once upon a time in the heart of Central America, there was a country named Poyais. It was exceptionally rich in natural resources and culture and it was governed by the brave and enlightened Scottish soldier, Sir Gregor MacGregor. On a cold January morning in 1823, a group of Scottish immigrants looking for a new life set sail for this tropical Eden. When the settlers’ finally landed on the swamp-ridden Mosquito Coast, they realised they had been the victims of an elaborate hoax. The land they had bought did not existent and the banknotes and guide books they carried were forgeries.']

JM III's Register: attribution to Barrow, but without evidence.


657 Article 9. Further Papers relating to the Slave Trade. Nos. III. and IV. Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed. 1821, 1822; Sixteenth Report of the Directors of the African Institution, read at the Annual Meeting, held on the 10th day of May, 1822, 161-79. Author: John Barrow, possibly with George Canning.

Running Title: The Slave Trade.

Notes: In attributing the article to Barrow, Shine cites only JM III's Register. 

The following evidence was first published in VPR 28. The evidence indicates that George Canning saw, and perhaps sub-edited, the article. Murray MS., Cash Book 1821-24: the same person was paid for articles 3, 5, 8, 9, and 11 in this Number. Harewood MS., WG to George Canning, 19 Dec. 1822, says Barrow's paper on the slave trade is enclosed. On page 164, the author of this article makes a specific reference to #602, page. 68, which is also by Barrow. In his QR articles, it was Barrow's signature practice to refer to his own works. The ER published numerous articles on the slave trade, but no article on that subject appeared at about this time. 

JM III's Register: attribution to Barrow, but without evidence.


658  Article 10. [Ireland,] Nuptiœ Sacre: or, an Inquiry into the Scriptural Doctrine of Marriage and Divorce. Addressed to the two Houses of Parliament. First printed in 1801, and now reprinted by desire; Tebbs, 'Essay on the Scripture Doctrines of Adultery and Divorce; and on the Criminal Character and Punishment of Adultery, by the Ancient Laws of England and other Countries:' being a Subject proposed for Investigation by the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge in the Diocese of David's, and to which that Society awarded its Premium of Fifty Pounds in December, 1821, 179-88. Author not identified.

Running Title: Adultery—Prize Essay.

Notes: In the absence of guidance from JM III's Register, Shine does not suggest an author for this article. 

The following information is published here for the first time. The first part of the article is a criticism of parochial societies in general and of the Royal Society of Literature in particular. The balance is a defence of John Ireland's copyright. Ireland, Dean of Westminster, was WG's closest friend and a some time contributor to the QR. A possibility is 'Collinson,' perhaps Septimus Collinson, a divine. A 'Collinson' certainly published in the QR in this period, but no article has been identified as from his pen. See John Wilson Croker to John Murray, Brighton, 29 March 1823 (quoted in Smiles II 57-58): ' ... remember the necessity of absolute secrecy on this point, and indeed on all others. If you were to publish such names as Cohen and Croker and Collinson and Coleridge, the magical WE would have little effect, and your Review would be absolutely despised—omne ignotum pro mirifico.' John Murray published Ireland's volume.


659 Article 11. Champollion, Lettre à M. Dacier, Secrétaire perpétuel de l'Académie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, relative à l'Alphabet des Hiéroglyphes Phonétiques employés par les Egyptiens, &c. &c., 188-96. Author: John Barrow.

Running Title: Champollion's Hieroglyphical Alphabet.

Notes: In attributing the article to Barrow, Shine cites only JM III's Register. 

The following evidence is published here for the first time. Murray MS., Cash Book 1821-24: the same person was paid for articles 3, 5, 8, 9, and 11 in this Number. The role of Thomas Young, a frequent contributor to the QR, in deciphering the Egyptian hieroglyphs is acknowledged on pages 189 and 192-93 of the article. Indeed, the author downplays Champollion's contribution at the expense of Young's. On page 192 the author of the article indirectly alludes to #651, which is also by Barrow. It was Barrow's signature practice in his QR articles to refer to his own works.

JM III's Register: attribution to Barrow, but without evidence.


660  Article 12. A Letter to His Majesty George the Fourth, King of the United Empire of Great Britain and Ireland, on the Temper and Aspect of the Times, 197-219. Author: David Robinson and William Gifford.

Running Title: The Opposition.

Notes: In attributing the article to Robinson and Gifford, Shine cites JM III's Register.  

The following evidence in favour of Robinson's authorship is published here for the first time. Murray MS., David Robinson to WG, 19 Feb. 1823, says he is glad WG liked his article and offers his continuing services. Murray MS., Robinson to JM, 2 Sept. 1823, mentions his article in the QR on 'The Opposition.' 

JM III's Register: 'all that is excellent by Wm Gifford. David Robinson', and note: 'David Robinson nominally the author. See his own letter Sep 2 / 1823/'.


661  Article 13. O'Meara, Napoleon in Exile; or a Voice from St. Helena. The Opinions and Reflexions of Napoleon on the most Important Events of his Life and Government, in his own Words; Las Cases, Memorial de Ste. Hélène. Journal de la Vie privée et des Conversations de l'Empereur Napoléon à Ste. HélèneMémoires pour servir à l'Histoire de France sous Napoléon, écrits à Ste. Hélène, sous le dicta de l'Empereur, par les Généraux qui ont partagé sa Captivité, et publiés sur les Manuscrits entièrement corrigés de sa main. Tome I., dicté au Général Gourgaud; Mélanges Historiques Vol. I., dicté au Comte de Montholon, 219-64. Author: John Wilson Croker, with Sir Hudson Lowe, Sir Thomas Reid, George Gorrequer, Robert Wilmot Horton, and Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington.

Running Title: O'Meara—Voice from St. Helena, &c.

Notes: In attributing the article to Croker alone, Shine cites JM III's Register. Shine says, 'Cf. Entry 719' and cites Croker 72n; Gentleman's Magazine XXI 579; and Brightfield 455. Shine also quotes from the following letters. Murray MS., WG to JM, postmarked 18 July 1822: 'I have indeed run thru Dr O'Meara .... A couple of precious scoundrels & saints—the Dr & his patrons are! I trust however they are both in Mr Croker's hands whose property they naturally are.' Murray MS., WG to JM, [Oct. 1822]: 'We can hardly have O'Meara for this No. I suppose .... I own I shall not, unless Mr C expects it, wish to wait. If he is anxious about it, we must, I suppose have it but it will make us very late.' Murray MS., WG to JM, [Mar. 1823]: '[A report says] the French have had the Art. on O'Meara translated & dispersed in great numbers about Paris & the country. Our friend seldom writes in vain.' Iowa MS., JM to Croker, [pencil notation: March 31, 1823]: 'I have just seen Mr Wilmot who has undertaken to favour me with an article on O'Meara & when you come back we will give him materials—a Pamphlet from America, I perceive, is advertised for the 1st of April.' [Quarterly Review editor's note: the promised article did not appear.]

Some of the following evidence was first published in VPR 24 and VPR 28. Information about PRO/ J76/7/1 ff. 1-58 is published here for the first time; this information casts important light on the development and reception of the article, and, moreover, on the Government's role in the conduct of the QR. In the article's first paragraphs, the reviewer indicates that his article is one in a series. The series he alludes to consists of QR articles #408, 418, and 439, each of which is by Croker. On page 253 of the article, the author makes a specific reference to article #321, which is by Croker. The author makes a specific reference on page 242 to article #418, which is also by Croker. Murray MS., Cash Book 1821-24: the same person was paid for articles 2 and 13 in this Number (article 2 is #650, by Croker). This article is claimed by Croker in five of his Clements Library MS. lists and it is included in the Cambridge University bound volumes of Croker's articles.

Murray MS., Croker to JM, 19 Feb. 1823, Croker, speaking of this article, asks testily why JM should assume he was the author, a statement that can only be understood in the light of PRO J76/7/1 ff. 1-58: shortly after the article's publication, certain participants in the article's creation feared that statements in the article would lead to litigation against its authors; in his letter to JM, Croker was referring only to those statements. PRO J76/7/1 ff. 1-58 contains voluminous correspondence concerning article #661, mostly between Sir Hudson Lowe and his military secretary, Lieutenant Colonel George Gorrequer, and between Gorrequer, Count Montholon, and Robert Wilmot Horton. The correspondence demonstrates that (with the exception of Montholon) each of these men complied with a request to submit material for use in #661. The focus of the correspondence and the reason for its preservation in the PRO is Gorrequer's threat to publicly denounce the use of his name in the article in the context of a passage on page 238: 'We have Sir Thomas Read's and Colonel Gorrequer's authority for this statement, and the notes themselves are deposited in Mr. Murray's hands, to satisfy any one who might doubt the accuracy of our quotations, which, we confess will be scarcely credible.' Gorrequer feared that the statement on page 238 put him in the position of attesting to the accuracy of the translation from the Italian of the word 'poltrone' as 'coward' in a letter quoted on page 243 in which O'Meara (according to this interpretation) calls Count Montholon a coward. 

Southampton MS., Croker to Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, 5 Feb. 1823 [archivist's summary of contents]: says WG has prepared a mock castigation of O'Meara; asks permission for WG to publish a paper sent by Wellington to Lord Whitworth concerned with Buonaparte's instructions to Talleyrand for treating with Lord Whitworth; WG  is ready to publish and urges a prompt reply. Murray MS., John Taylor Coleridge to WG, 15 Feb. 1823, says the article on O'Meara 'comes some months after it ought to have done, and I think in manner is not so finished as it would have been if Gifford had been quite a stout man—but it is conclusive upon the book—why did not Sir H L put these materials in your hands sooner.' Sir Hudson Lowe (1769-1844), lieutenant-general and governor of St. Helena (1815-21). His treatment of Napoleon was attacked by O'Meara, Napoleon's surgeon. See Forsyth, Captivity of Napoleon at St. Helena (1853), based on the Lowe papers. Concerning Iowa MS., JM to Croker, n.d. [pencil notation in another hand: 31 Mar. 1823], quoted above, if the date is correct, Wilmot did not produce his article on O'Meara and the pamphlet may refer to #719.

[Booksellers' notes: 'O'Meara was a thoroughly disreputable character, and this rabidly partisan work drew furious responses from many quarters, including the Duke of Wellington and Louis Bonaparte. Nevertheless, it has influenced later scholarship and is undoubtedly (if used cautiously) one of the most important St. Helena works.' Tulard 579. 'This view [that it was because O'Meara's was Irish that he was partial to Napoleon] is supported by O'Meara's deportment at the end of his life when he became an active member of O'Connell's Reform Club. But that was after he had been lionised by Byron and other admirers. At this stage of his life O'Meara displayed a different sort of [stereotypical] Irishness: already drummed out of the army in 1807 for duelling, he was drummed out of St. Helena in 1818 for openly and repeatedly slandering Sir Hudson Lowe.' Sutcliffe, The Sandler Collection (1996)]

The subject of this article was reviewed in ER #994, June 1822, by Henry Brougham. Frequent references to O'Meara also appear in the same Number of that journal, in #998.

JM III's Register: attribution to Croker, but without evidence.

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