1 Benjamin Keen, The Aztec Image in Western Thought (New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1971), pp. 271-72; T. Todorov, The Conquest of the Americas: The Question of the Other (New York, 1987).

2 The Eclectic Review, quoted in Robert Southey: The Critical Heritage, ed. Lionel Madden (London and Boston, 1972), pp. 106-7.

3 Quoted in David Eastwood, 'Patriotism Personified: Robert Southey's Life of Nelson Reconsidered', The Mariner's Mirror, 77 (1991), pp. 143-49 (p. 145).

4 Quoted in Eastwood, 'Patriotism Personified', p. 149.

5 In the Intermediate Education Series, ed. G. A. Green (London, 1879).

6 See Tom Paulin, 'English Political Writers on Ireland: Robert Southey to Douglas Hurd', in Critical Approaches to Anglo-Irish Literature, eds. Michael Allen and Angela Wilcox (Gerrards Cross, 1989), pp. 132-45.

7 See Robert Southey, Essays Moral and Political, 2 vols. (London, 1832), ii, p. 280.

8 From the 'Botany Bay Eclogues', in The Poetical Works of Robert Southey Collected By Himself, 10 vols. (London, 1853), ii, p. 72.

9 S. T. Coleridge, Essays on his Times, ed. David V. Erdman, 3 vols. (London and Princeton, 1978), ii, p. 409.

10 Ibid., pp. 384-85.

11 Ibid., pp. 387, 405.

12 Ibid., p. 411.

13 Mary Louise Pratt, Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation (New York and London, 1992), pp. 67-68.

14 J. M. Coetzee, White Writing: On the Culture of Letters in South Africa (New Haven and London, 1988), pp. 35-62.

15 The African Poems of Thomas Pringle, eds. Ernest Pereira and Michael Chapman (Durban, 1989); John Robert Doyle, Thomas Pringle (New York, 1972). See also David Bunn, '"Our Wattled Cot": Mercantile and Domestic Spaces in Thomas Pringle's African Landscapes', in Landscape and Power, ed. W. J. T. Mitchell (Chicago and London, 1994).

7 See Robert Southey, Essays Moral and Political, 2 vols. (London, 1832), ii, p. 280.

8 From the 'Botany Bay Eclogues', in The Poetical Works of Robert Southey Collected By Himself, 10 vols. (London, 1853), ii, p. 72.

16 The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire, ed. Peter J. Marshall (Cambridge, 1996), pp. 36-39.

17 Bernard Smith, European Vision and the South Pacific, 1768-1850 (Oxford, 1960), p. 184.

18 The Poetical Works of Robert Southey, ii, p. 73.

19 Lord Byron: The Complete Poetical Works, ed. Jerome J. McGann, 7 vols. (Oxford, 1980-91), v.

20 John Thelwall, Poems Written in Close Confinement in the Tower and Newgate Under a Charge of High Treason (London, 1795), p. 8.

21 Smith, European Vision, pp. 132, 117-57.

22 Ibid., pp. 132-33.

23 Ibid., pp. 125-32.

24 For a persuasive reading of Byron's manipulation of the categories of gender and Orient see, Susan J. Wolfson, '"A Problem Few Dare Imitate": Byron's Sardanapalus and the "Effeminate Character"', ELH, 58 (1991), pp. 867-902. See Marilyn Butler's argument that Byron's Nineveh 'as a realized imagined Otherworld, is the familiar world - London - at once turned upside down, and satirically reproduced'. See her 'John Bull's Other Kingdom', Studies in Romanticism, 31 (1991), pp. 281-94.

25 See also Elizabeth A. Bohls, 'Standards of Taste, Discourses of Race, and the Aesthetic Education of a Monster', Eighteenth-Century Life, 18 (1994), pp. 23-36 (p. 27).

26 Thomas Paine, 'Reflections on the Life and Death of Lord Clive' (1775), The Thomas Paine Reader, eds. Michael Foot and Isaac Kramnick (Harmondsworth, 1987), pp. 57-62.

27 On colonialism and the Gothic, see H. W. Malchow, Gothic Images of Race in Nineteenth Century Britain (Stanford, 1996), pp. 9-40. Bohls, 'Standards of Taste', p. 27; Joseph W. Lew, 'The Deceptive Other: Mary Shelley's Critique of Orientalism in Frankenstein', Studies in Romanticism, 30 (1991), pp. 255-83. Kari J. Winter, Subjects of Slavery, Agents of Change: Women and Power in Gothic Novels and Slave Narratives, 1790-1865 (Athens, Georgia and London, 1992), pp. 49-52.

28 Lines 86-105, The Poems of Anna Letitia Barbauld, eds. William McCarthy and Elizabeth Kraft (Athens, Georgia and London, 1994), pp. 117-18.

29 See Patrick Brantlinger, Rule of Darkness: British Literature and Imperialism (Ithaca, 1988), pp. 227-53; Nicholas Daly, 'That Obscure Object of Desire: Victorian Commodity Culture and the Fictions of the Mummy', Novel, 28 (1994), pp. 42-70; Laura Chrisman, 'The Imperial Unconscious', Critical Quarterly, 32 (1990), pp. 38-58.

30 Marilyn Butler, 'Orientalism', in The Penguin History of Literature. Vol. 5: The Romantic Period, ed. David B. Pirie (Harmondsworth, 1994), p. 438.

31 The Poems of John Keats, ed. Miriam Allott. Longman Annotated Poets (Harlow and New York, 1970), p. 471.

32 Ibid., p. 334.

33 Joan Baum, Mind-Forg'd Manacles: Slavery and the English Romantic Poets (North Haven, 1994), pp. 117-18.

34 John Whale, 'Sacred Objects and the Sublime Ruins of Art', in Beyond Romanticism: New Approaches to Texts and Contexts, 1780-1832, eds. Stephen Copley and John Whale (London and New York, 1992), pp. 218-36 (p. 236).

35 Nigel Leask, British Romantic Writers and the East: Anxieties of Empire (Cambridge, 1992), pp. 6-12.

36 John Barrell, The Political Theory of Painting from Reynolds to Hazlitt: 'The Body of the Public' (New Haven and London, 1986); Terry Eagleton, The Ideology of the Aesthetic (Oxford, 1990). Elizabeth A. Bohls has recently argued that, from the latter half of the eighteenth century, certain writings 'draw on the cultural power of the aesthetic to legitimize the region's colonial plantation culture'. See, 'The Aesthetics of Colonialism: Janet Schaw in the West Indies, 1774-1775', Eighteenth-Century Studies, 27 (1994), pp. 363-90 (p. 365). See David Lloyd, 'Race Under Representation', Oxford Literary Review, 13 (1991), 62-94 on the racist implications of Kantian aesthetics.