1 For a summary of the historical debate about colonialism and imperialism in the period, see Frank McDonough, The British Empire (London, 1994), pp. 1-25.
2 Gananath Obeyesekere, The Apotheosis of Captain Cook: European Mythmaking in the Pacific (Oxford and Princeton, 1992), p. 5.
3 Mary Louise Pratt, Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation (New York and London, 1992), pp. 15-37. Pratt argues that the "eighteenth-century systematizing of nature as a European knowledge-building project . . . created a new kind of Eurocentred planetary consciousness" (p. 39). See also David Killingray, A Plague of Europeans: Westerners in Africa since the fifteenth century (Harmondsworth, 1973).
4 Obeyesekere, Apotheosis of Captain Cook, pp. 40-43.
5 For the Romantic obsession with polar landscapes see Francis Spurford, I May Be Some Time: Ice and the English Imagination (London, 1996), pp. 1-53. For Cook's voyages, see J. C. Beaglehole, The Exploration of the Pacific, 2nd edn (London, 1947); Alan Frost, 'New Geographical Perspectives and the Emergence of the Romantic Imagination', in Captain James Cook and His Times, eds. Robin Fisher and Hugh Johnston (Vancouver and London, 1979), pp. 5-20. William Wales, who was an astronomer on Cook's second voyage, was also Coleridge's and Lamb's mathematics tutor at Christ's Hospital, known for entertaining his pupils with stories of his travels. See also Bernard Smith, 'Coleridge's Ancient Mariner and Cook's Second Voyage', Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 19 (1956), pp. 117-54.
6 William Empson, 'The Ancient Mariner', Critical Quarterly, 6 (1964), pp. 298-319; J. R. Ebbatson, 'Coleridge's Mariner and the Rights of Man', Studies in Romanticism, 11 (1972), pp. 171-206; Patrick J. Keane, Coleridge's Submerged Politics: The Ancient Mariner and Robinson Crusoe (Columbia and London, 1994).
7 The Writings and Speeches of Edmund Burke, gen. ed. Paul Langford, 17 vols (Oxford, 1981- ), vi, pp. 350.
8 Sara Suleri, in The Rhetoric of English India (Chicago and London, 1992), p. 65, shows the same logic to have structured Burke's rhetoric as he strove to encompass India's cultural and geographical vastness.
9 Aijaz Ahmad, In Theory: Classes, Nations, Literatures (London and New York, 1992), pp. 257-65. See also George D. Bearce, British Attitudes Towards India 1784-1858 (Oxford, 1961) and S. N. Mukherjee, Sir William Jones: a Study in Eighteenth-Century Attitudes to India (Cambridge, 1968).
10 S. T. Coleridge, Lectures 1795 On Politics and Religion, eds. Lewis Patton and Peter Mann (London and Princeton, 1971), p. 325.
11 Ibid., pp. 56-58.
12 Eric Williams argued in Capitalism and Slavery (London, 1944) that the industrial revolution in Britain was financed by the profits of slavery and that an increasingly unviable system of slavery was merely replaced by other forms of bonded labour and the exploitation of African and Asian workers. For an overview of the debate, see Robin Blackburn, The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery 1776-1848 (London and New York, 1988), pp. 24-28.
13 Quoted in Slavery: Abolition and Emancipation, eds. Michael Craton, James Walvin and David Wright (London and New York, 1976), p. 222.
14 Coleridge borrowed the second edition of Clarkson's Essay (London, 1788) from the Bristol Library in June 1795. For Clarkson, see E. L. Griggs, Thomas Clarkson: The Friend of Slaves (London, 1936); Ellen Gibson Wilson, Thomas Clarkson: A Biography (London and New York, 1990).
15 Anthony Benezet, Some Historical Account of Guinea . . . with an Inquiry into the Rise and Progress of the Slave-Trade . . . also a Republication of the Sentiments of Several Authors of Note, on This Interesting Subject. Particularly an Extract of a Treatise, by Granville Sharp, 2 vols. (Philadelphia, 1781).
16 Robert Young, Colonial Desire: Hybridity in Theory, Culture and Race (London and New York, 1995), p. 7.
17 Wylie Sypher, Guinea's Captive Kings: British Anti-Slavery Literature of the XVIII Century (New York, 1969), p. 55.
18 See Nicholas Hudson, 'From "Nation" to "Race": The Origins of Racial Classification in Eighteenth-Century Thought', Eighteenth-Century Studies, 29 (1996), pp. 247-64 (p. 258). See also, Eric Voeglin, 'The Growth of the Race Idea', Review of Politics, 2 (1940), pp. 283-317; Richard H. Popkin, 'The Philosophical Basis of Eighteenth-Century Racism', in Racism in the Eighteenth Century. Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture, vol. 2, ed. Harold E. Pagliaro (Cleveland and London, 1973), pp. 245-62 (pp. 246-47); Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man (Harmondsworth, 1981); Nancy L. Stepan, The Idea of Race in Science: Great Britain (London, 1982), pp. 1-82; Michael Banton, Racial Theories (Cambridge, 1987); Robert Miles, Racism (London and New York, 1989); David Lloyd, 'Race Under Representation', Oxford Literary Review, 13 (1991), pp. 62-94; Anne McClintock, Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest (New York and London, 1995), pp. 33-56; Londa Schiebinger, 'The Anatomy of Difference: Race and Sex in Eighteenth-Century Science', Eighteenth-Century Studies, 23 (1990), pp. 387-405.
19 Lloyd, 'Race Under Representation', p. 69.
20 For the contributions of Carl Linnaeus and G. L. Buffon, see Hudson, 'From "Nation" to "Race"', pp. 252-53; Banton, Racial Theories, pp. 3-5; Pratt, Imperial Eyes, pp. 24-37; James L. Larson, Interpreting Nature: The Science of Living Form from Linnaeus to Kant (Baltimore and London, 1994).
21 The Anthropological Treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, tr. and ed. Thomas Bendyshe (London, 1865), p. 269.
22 Ibid., pp. 264-76, 302-4; Banton, Racial Theories, pp. 5-6; Young, Colonial Desire, pp. 64-65. For the gender implications of Blumenbach's racial theories, see Schiebinger, 'The Anatomy of Difference: Race and Sex in Eighteenth-Century Science'.
23 See S. T. Coleridge, Marginalia, ed. George Whalley, 5 vols (Princeton and London, 1980), i, pp. 535-41.
24 J. Haeger, 'Coleridge's Speculations on Race', Studies in Romanticism, 13 (1974), pp. 333-57; Patrick J. Keane, Coleridge's Submerged Politics. See also Trevor H. Levere, Poetry Realized in Nature: Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Early Nineteenth-Century Science (Cambridge, 1981), pp. 114-15.
25 Anthropological Treatises of Blumenbach, pp. 310-12.
26 See Patrick Brantlinger, Rule of Darkness: British Literature and Imperialism (Ithaca and London, 1988), pp. 184-88.
27 For an overview of the debate about the nature of the 'Negro' see, Sypher, Guinea's Captive Kings, pp. 50-55.
28 Edward Long, History of Jamaica, 3 vols (London 1774), ii, pp. 51-83. On Long see Peter Fryer, Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain (London, 1940), pp. 157-60.
29 Young, Colonial Desire, pp. 7-8; Banton, Racial Theories, pp. 13-15.
30 Anthony Benezet, Some Historical Account of Guinea its situation, produce, and the general disposition of its inhabitants with an Inquiry into the Rise and Progress of the Slave Trade its Nature and Lamentable Effects (London, 1771; 2nd edn, 1788; rpt 1968), p. 56. Further references to this edition are cited in the text by title Account and page number.
31 David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution (Cornell and London, 1975), p. 214.
32 Sypher, Guinea's Captive Kings, pp. 69, 92-93.
33 For Clarkson, see Griggs, Thomas Clarkson: The Friend of Slaves; Wilson, Thomas Clarkson: A Biography.
34 Thomas Clarkson, An Essay on the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species, particularly the African; translated from a Latin Dissertation, 2nd edn (London, 1788), p. 131. Further references to this essay are cited in the text by title, Essay, and page number.
35 The demolition of this biblical justification for black slavery was a necessary task for the Christian Clarkson as it was for his contemporary, the black writer and convert, Quobna Ottobah Cugoano in his Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil and Wicked Traffic of the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species (London, 1787). See Black Atlantic Writers of the 18th Century, eds. Adam Potkay and Sandra Burr (London, 1995), pp. 139-43.
36 Thomas Clarkson, An Essay on the Impolicy of the African Slave Trade (London, 1788), pp. 98-107.
37 C. L. R. James, The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (London, 1938).
38 For a theoretical discussion of the appropriation of the speech of the colonized see Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, 'Can the Subaltern Speak?' in Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, eds. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg (London, 1988), pp. 271-313.
39 Fox's An Address to the People of Great Britain, on the Propriety of Abstaining from West India Sugar and Rum, went through twenty-six editions by 1793. Thomas Cooper, Considerations on the Slave Trade; and the Consumption of West Indian Produce (London, 1791).
40 Thomas Percy, Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, 3 vols (London, 1765).
41 The Poems of William Cowper, ed. John D. Baird and Charles Ryskamp, 3 vols (Oxford, 1980-95), iii, pp. 13-14.
42 Cora Kaplan, 'Pandora's Box: Subjectivity, Class and Sexuality in Socialist Feminist Criticism', in Making a Difference: Feminist Literary Criticism, eds. G. Greene and C. Kahn (London and New York, 1985), pp. 146-76 (p. 150). For the exclusions of race from Reason see, Popkin, 'Racism', pp. 245-62 (pp. 246-47).
43 Long, History of Jamaica.
44 See Alan Richardson, 'Colonialism, Race, and Lyric Irony in Blake's "The Little Black Boy"', Papers on Language and Literature, 26 (1990), pp. 64-90 and Literature, Education, and Romanticism (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 153-66.
45 See D. L. Macdonald, 'Pre-Romantic and Romantic Abolitionism: Cowper and Blake', European Romantic Review, 4 (1994), pp. 163-82.
46 David V. Erdman, Blake: Prophet Against Empire, 3rd edn (Princeton, 1977), pp. 226-42; 'Blake's Vision of Slavery', in Blake: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed. Northrop Frye (Englewood Cliffs, 1966), pp. 88-103.
47 Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, ed. Miriam Brody (Harmondsworth, 1985), p. 257.
48 Martin Esslin, Blake's Commercial Engravings (Oxford, 1993). For Stedman, see Pratt, Imperial Eyes, pp. 90-102.
49 Erdman, Blake: Prophet Against Empire, p. 228.
50 Blake: The Complete Poems, ed. W. H. Stevenson, 2nd edn (London and New York, 1989), p. 174. For Said, Africanist discourse stereotypes the African mind in an analogous way to Orientalist discourse: it contains 'the notion of bringing civilization to primitive or barbaric peoples, the disturbingly familiar ideas about flogging to death or extended punishment being required when "they" misbehaved or became rebellious because "they" understood force or violence best; "they" were not like "us" and for that reason deserved to be rule". Culture and Imperialism (London, 1993), pp. xi-xii.
51 Stephen Vine, '"That Mild Beam": Enlightenment and enslavement in William Blake's Visions of the Daughters of Albion', in The Discourse of Slavery: Aphra Behn to Toni Morrison, eds. Carl Plasa and Betty J. Ring (London and New York, 1994), pp. 40-63 (p. 41).
52 Blake: The Complete Poems, p. 242.
53 Alan Moorehead, The Fatal Impact: The Invasion of the South Pacific 1767-1840 (New York and Cambridge, 1966), p. 51. See Beaglehole, The Exploration of the Pacific, pp. 198-381. For a discussion of the various accounts of the voyages to the South Seas in the period see Philip Edwards, The Story of the Voyage: Sea-Narratives in Eighteenth-Century England (Cambridge, 1994) and Neil Rennie, Far Fetched Facts: The Literature of Travel and The Idea of the South Seas (Oxford, 1992).
54 Edwards, Story of the Voyage, pp. 110-11.
55 Moorehead, The Fatal Impact, pp. 69-104 (p. 104); Bernard Smith, European Vision and the South Pacific, 1768-1850 (Oxford, 1960), pp. 24-25.
56 Smith, European Vision, pp. 80-81.
57 The Poems of William Cowper, ii, pp. 133-34.
58 John Livingston Lowes, The Road to Xanadu (London, 1927); Smith, 'Coleridge's Ancient Mariner and Cook's Second Voyage'; James C. McKusick, '"That Silent Sea": Coleridge, Lee Boo, and the Exploration of the South Pacific', The Wordsworth Circle, 24 (1993), pp. 102-6.
59 The Notebooks of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, ed. Kathleen Coburn, 5 vols (London and Princeton, 1957- ), i, 179; Geoffrey Sanbourn, 'The Madness of Mutiny: Wordsworth, the Bounty and The Borderers', The Wordsworth Circle, 23 (1992), pp. 35-42.
60 The Life and Correspondence of Robert Southey, ed. Rev. Charles Cuthbert Southey, 6 vols (London, 1849-50), ii, pp. 243.
61 'The Orientalism of Byron's Giaour', in Byron: the Limits of Fiction, ed. Bernard Beatty (Totowa, New Jersey, 1988), p. 78.
62 For a judicious discussion of the effect of women's subordinate gender position on their representations of the colonized see Laura E. Donaldson, Decolonizing Feminisms: Race, Gender and Empire-Building (London, 1993). See also, Moira Ferguson, Subject to Others: British Women Writers and Colonial Slavery, 1760-1834 (London and New York, 1992); Anne McClintock, Imperial Leather: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest (New York, 1995); Moira Ferguson, Colonialism and Gender Relations from Mary Wollstonecraft to Jamaica Kincaid: East Caribbean Connections (New York, 1993); Susan Meyer, Imperialism at Home: Race and Victorian Women's Fiction (Ithaca and London, 1996).
63 Sander L. Gilman, 'Black Bodies, White Bodies: Toward an Iconography of Female Sexuality in Late Nineteenth-Century Art, Medicine, and Literature', in 'Race,' Writing, and Difference, ed. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. (Chicago and London, 1985), pp. 223-61. For discussion of the representation of women and the historical phase of eighteenth-century colonialism see Laura Brown, 'Reading Race and Gender', Eighteenth-Century Studies, 23 (1990), pp. 425-43.
64 Nancy L. Stepan, 'Race and Gender: The Role of Analogy in Science', Isis, 77 (1986), pp. 261-77 (p. 263).
65 Deirdre Coleman, 'Conspicuous Consumption: White Abolitionism and English Women's Protest Writing in the 1790s', ELH, 61 (1994), pp. 341-62 (p. 341).
66 McClintock, Imperial Leather, pp. 5, 12-13. For recent discussions of these areas see Lisa Lowe, Critical Terrains: French and British Orientalisms (Ithaca, 1991); Suvendrini Perera, Reaches of Empire: The English Novel from Edgeworth to Dickens (Chicago, 1992); Jenny Sharpe, Allegories of Empire: The Figure of the Woman in the Colonial Text (Minneapolis, 1993); Chandra Talpade Mohanty, 'Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses', in Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism, eds. Chandra Talpade Mohanty, Ann Russo, and Lourdes Torres (Bloomington, 1991), pp. 51-80.