Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, 1998

WORKS: COLLECTED, SELECTED, SINGLE , TRANSLATED

Butler, Marilyn, ed. Frankenstein, or, The Modern Prometheus: The 1818 Text, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998.

Curran, Stuart, ed. Valperga, or, The Life and Adventures of Castruccio, Prince of Lucca, by Mary Shelley. London: Oxford UP, 1998.

Not printed since its first edition, Mary Shelley's second novel is a major "discovery" of the Mary Shelley bicentenary of 1997. "The novel's lack of success as a follow-up to Frankenstein was the result of its subject matter and unconventional approach to the genre of historical fiction, attributes that can only delight the twentieth-century reader. Shelley's mastery of the details of thirteenth-century Tuscan politics is unique among women of her time, and her resolute filtering of the bloody heroics of the age through the sensibilities of two women who are destroyed by them reveals the feminist perspective missing so conspicuously from her first novel."

Dalby, Richard, ed. Twelve Gothic Tales. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998.

Includes "The Dream," by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley.

Joseph, M. K., ed. Frankenstein, or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998.

Munch, Philippe, ill. Frankenstein, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. New York: Viking, 1998.

Rajan, Tilottama, ed. Valperga, or, The Life and Adventures of Castruccio, Prince of Lucca, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview P, 1998.

A third edition of Mary Shelley's novel, one that will take its place alongside Nora Crook's for Pickering & Chatto (1996) and Stuart Curran's for Oxford UP (1997).

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. Maurice, or, The Fisher's Cot: A Tale. New York: Knopf, 1998.

Stevens, David, ed. Frankenstein, or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.

BOOKS AND ARTICLES RELATING TO M. W. SHELLEY

Baldick, Chris. "Monsters of Empire: Conrad and Lawrence." In Critical Essays on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, ed. Mary Lowe-Evans (New York: G. K. Hall; London: Prentice, 1998), 185-202. Reprinted from In Frankenstein's Shadow: Myth, Monstrosity, and Nineteenth-Century Writing, by Chris Baldick (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1987).

Baldick explores similarities between Heart of Darkness and Frankenstein, but sees Conrad as limited compared to D. H. Lawrence. Baldick "discovers in Lawrence an abiding, culturally induced mistrust of polar exploration that directly opposes the enthusiasms of Frankenstein's narrator Robert Walton" (17). In Women in Love, Lawrence seems to employ a "vocabulary of geographical symbols derived from the Shelley-Byron circle's Alpine obsessions to attack modern imperialism" (17).

Beer, John. "Mary Shelley, Frankenstein." In A Companion to Romanticism, ed. Duncan Wu (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998), 227-36.

Behrendt, Stephen. "Mary Shelley, Frankenstein, and the Woman Writer's Fate." In Critical Essays on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, ed. Mary Lowe-Evans (New York: G. K. Hall; London: Prentice, 1998), 133-51. Reprinted from Romantic Women Writers: Voices and Countervoices, ed. Paula R. Feldman and Theresa M. Kelley (Hanover, N.H.: UP of New England, 1995), 69-87, 278-80.

Stephen Behrendt "examines Frankenstein from the perspective of the lessons it teaches about the 'hazards of authorship,' especially for the romantic woman author. Coming to us second or thirdhand, the action of Frankenstein is always kept offstage, a strategy that, for Behrendt, renders the violence of the novel 'powerfully imminent.'" Frankenstein is "a construct of words" rather than a "direct representation of actions" (15).

Bennett, Betty T. "Finding Mary Shelley in Her Letters." In Critical Essays on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, ed. Mary Lowe-Evans (New York: G. K. Hall; London: Prentice, 1998), 118-32.

Reprinted from Romantic Revisions, ed. Robert Brinkley and Keith Hanley (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996), 291-306. Bennett "demonstrates how the physical properties of the letters (postmarks, watermarks), together with the subjects addressed, sentence structure, changes in handwriting and tone of voice, and use of eccentric punctuation all provide evidence that allows us 'to revise Mary Shelley's image from . . . a passive, conventional Victorian lady into a multidimensional, complex Romanticist'" (14).

Bennett, Betty T. Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley: An Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1998.

Brewer, William D. "Mary Shelley on the Therapeutic Value of Language." In Critical Essays on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, ed. Mary Lowe-Evans (New York: G. K. Hall; London: Prentice, 1998), 152-65. Reprinted from PLL 30.4 (Fall 1994), 387-408.

Brewer discusses Matilda's "failure to speak the name of the sin that causes her suffering" (15). He explores "the predicament of a suffering human being torn between the impulse to communicate and the urge to retreat into isolation and death" (15).

Brewer, William D. "Unnationalized Englishmen in Mary Shelley's Fiction." RoN 11 (Aug. 1998): <http://www.erudit.org/revue/ron/1998/v/n11/005812ar.html>.

Discusses Mary Shelley's novels Lodore (1835), Mathilda (1819), Falkner (1837), and The Fortunes of Perin Warbeck (1830), and Godwin's Fleetwood. Brewer sees Lord Raymond as a Byron-surrogate in Shelley's The Last Man (1826) and Clairmont saw Lodore as a "<beastly> modification of the beastley character of Lord Byron." Brewer argues that Valperga, The Last Man, Lodore, and Falkner "take the Byronic hero as their central characters" (31).

Cafarelli, Annette Wheeler. "Rousseau and British Romanticism: Women and the Legacy of Male Radicalism." In Cultural Interactions in the Romantic Age: Critical Essays in Comparative Literature, ed. Gregory Maertz (Albany: State U of New York P, 1998), 125-55.

Rousseau's opponents were not conservatives aligned with Burke, but British radicals like Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary Hays, and Catherine Macaulay. Conservatives like Hannah More, Clara Reeve, and Sydney Owenson Morgan "were actually more likely to appropriate Rousseau's prescriptions for women in their own work" (7). Explores Mary Shelley's selective reading of Rousseau's Julie after the death of her husband in her essay in The Liberal, "Mme d'Houdetot" (1823) (147).

Campbell Orr, Clarissa. "Mary Shelley's Rambles in Germany and Italy, the Celebrity Author, and the Undiscovered Country of the Human Heart." RoN 11 (Aug. 1998): <http://www.erudit.org/revue/ron/1998/v/n11/005813ar.html>.

Campbell Orr discusses Shelley's Rambles in Germany and Italy (1844) as a "portrait of her personal landscape" and discusses the work in the context of her parents, peers, and progeny, and also in relation to her mother's Letters from Norway (1796), Wollstonecraft's most commercially successful work; to travel writing by Lady Morgan, Frances Trollope, and Samuel Rogers; and to "strategies for self-promotion available to nineteenth-century authors of famous literary offSpring." Discusses Madame de Staël's De L'Allemagne, Corinne, and The Wild Irish Girl (1805); Lady Morgan's Diary of an Ennuyee; Trollope's Charles Chesterfield (1841) and its influence on Shelley; and other works.

Canuel, Mark. "Acts, Rules, and The Last Man." NCL 53:2 (Sept. 1998): 147-71.

"Disease--the whittling down of human populations--does not merely signify an absence of population: it reconfigures the meaning of populations as well as the meaning of other persons to the self" (151). The novel is about "the formation of less restrictive patterns of social cooperation . . . that would . . . characterize the logic of the liberal state" in the remaining decades of the nineteenth century (152).

Chatterjee, Ranita. "Dialogues of Desire: Intertextual Narration in the Works of Mary Shelley and William Godwin." Ph.D. diss., U of Western Ontario (Canada), 1998, DAI-A, 59-10 (1998): 3826, 287 pages.

Using Kristeva's notion of intertextuality and Lacan's theory of desire, this study argues for an invented term, "psychonarration," which "describes the intertextual connections that arise from within an intimate collective, such as the father-daughter relationship of Godwin and Shelley." The study examines "what I argue are Godwin's and Shelley's most personal, yet textually constructed works: the former's recollections of and tribute to Mary Wollstonecraft in Memoirs of the Author of 'A Vindication of The Rights of Woman' (1798) and Mary Shelley's originally unpublished fictional autobiographical confession of father-daughter incest in Mathilda (composed in 1819)." Chatterjee states that Godwin's Caleb Williams, Memoirs, Fleetwood, and his last novel, Deloraine, and Shelley's Frankenstein, Mathilda, "The Mourner," and her last novel, Falkner, portray father-daughter intimacy. Chatterjee argues for a "libidinal interaction between the historical lives of authors and the textual inscriptions of these histories."

Clemit, Pamela. "Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley." In Literature of the Romantic Period: A Bibliographical Guide, ed. Michael O'Neill (Oxford: Clarendon P, 1998), 284-97.

Conger, Syndy McMillen. "Multivocality in Mary Shelley's Unfinished Memoirs of Her Father." ERR 9:3 (Summer 1998): 303-22.

Conger considers the question of why Mary Shelley did not complete the posthumous memoirs of her father, William Godwin, that she promised in early 1837. Her letters written between 1836 and 1841 show her increasingly ill health, her disappointment in the poor sales of an edition of Percy Bysshe's works, and her fear of an ensuing scandal that would vitiate the professional prospects of her son, Percy. Conger detects a struggle among three authorial personae in Mary Shelley's letters (a Victorian biographer, a scholarly biographer, and a speculative biographer), though no single personae predominates. "At every turn, Shelley's keen awareness of her contemporaries' ethical and aesthetic preferences compels her to defend her parents from imagined attacks: to revise, to protest, to delete, to delimit. At every turn, too, she surely confronts the ghosts of her parents, who are visible and audible in her writing to the end of her life" (318).

Cox, Tracy. "Frankenstein and Its Cinematic Translations." In Critical Essays on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, ed. Mary Lowe-Evans (New York: G. K. Hall; London: Prentice, 1998), 214-29.

Discusses Thomas Edison Company's 1910 production (the first Frankenstein film), Universal's 1931 production starring Boris Karloff (the classic Hollywood version, which remains the locus classicus of all Frankenstein films), and Kenneth Branagh's 1994 production (which declares its intentions to faithfully represent the novel). All of these versions "exploit the novel's thrill and gore potentials, at the cost of its more subtle arguments about education, sympathy, and social intolerance" (216).

Florescu, Radu. In Search of Frankenstein: Exploring the Myths Behind Mary Shelley's Monster. New York: Robson Books/Parkwest, 1998.

Franco, Dean. "Mirror Images and Otherness in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." Literature and Psychology 44.1-2 (Spring/Summer 1998): 80-95.

Gilbert, Sandra. "Horror's Twin: Mary Shelley's Monstrous Eve." In Critical Essays on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, ed. Mary Lowe-Evans (New York: G. K. Hall; London: Prentice, 1998), 39-61.

Reprinted in part from Feminist Studies 4.2 (Summer 1978), 48-73, which explores Frankenstein as a reading of Paradise Lost. "In making their case for the work as female fantasy, though, critics like Moers have tended to evade the problems posed by what we must define as Frankenstein's literariness. Yet, despite the weaknesses in those traditional readings of the novel that overlook its intensely sexual materials, it is still undeniably true that Mary Shelley's 'ghost story,' growing from a Keatsian (or Coleridgean) waking dream, is a romantic novel about--among other things--Romanticism, as well as a book about books and perhaps, too, about the writers of books" (40).

Harpold, Terence. "'Did You Get Mathilda from Papa?': Seduction Fantasy and the Circulation of Mary Shelley's Mathilda." In Critical Essays on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, ed. Mary Lowe-Evans (New York: G. K. Hall; London: Prentice, 1998), 101-17. Reprinted from SIR 28.1 (Spring 1989), 49-67.

Like Frankenstein, Mathilda "refigures Mary Shelley's family dramatic personae" (14).

Hoeveler, Diane Long. Gothic Feminism: The Professionalization of Gender from Charlotte Smith to the Brontës. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State UP, 1998.

Hoeveler's introduction is titled "Gothic Feminism and the Professionalization of 'Femininity.'" In five chapters, she discusses Charlotte Smith's Emmeline, the Orphan of the Castle; Radcliffe's Early Gothics; Radcliffe's Major Gothics; Jane Austen; "Rosa Matilda" and Mary Shelley; and the Brontës and Romantic feminism.

Hofkosh, Sonia. Sexual Politics and the Romantic Author. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.

Includes chapters titled "Introduction: Invisible Girls," "A Woman's Profession: Sexual Difference and the Romance of Authorship," "The Writer's Ravishment: Byron's Body Politics," "Classifying Romanticism: The Milliner Girl and the Magazines," "Disfiguring Economies: Mary Shelley's Gift-Book Stories," "The Author's Progress: William Hazlitt's Keswick Escapade and Sarah Hazlitt's Journal," and "Romanticism in the Drawing Room: Austen's Interiority."

Hofkosh's third chapter, "Classifying Romanticism: The Milliner Girl and the Magazines," briefly considers the periodical press lampoon of Leigh Hunt as "King of the Cockneys" (66). "Invisible girls are scripted into romantic tradition in particularly material configurations--as bodies, among objects, like books, in the marketplace--even as they appear to be overlooked or, what may amount to the same thing, looked over" (3). She discusses Byron's letter to Walter Scott describing the circumstances that attended his dedication to Scott of Cain. Both Keats and Byron owed their literary fame to the very Bluestockings they despised and who read them (54). In her chapter on Mary Shelley, "Disfiguring Economies," Hofkosh turns her attention to Mary Shelley's writings for annual gift books. "Between the death of Percy Bysshe in 1822 and the death of Sir Timothy in 1844, Shelley supplements the subsistence income her father-in-law begrudgingly lends her out of her son's future estate by writing short stories, many for such annual gift books as The Keepsake and Heath's Book of Beauty." Hofkosh argues that "these narratives explicate in their various frames Shelley's negotiations between two economies of value--of authority, authorship, self--in which the body, especially the female body, is inseparably implicated. Shelley's stories respond on the one hand to an aristocratic economy of patrilinear inheritance and, on the other hand, she recognizes an economics of the marketplace, what Percy Bysshe called 'the shop interest'" (86) wherein production disfigures the writer.

Hogle, Jerrold E. "Frankenstein as Neo-Gothic: From the Ghost of the Counterfeit to the Monster of Abjection." In Romanticism, History, and the Possibilities of Genre: Re-forming Literature 1789-1837, ed. Tilottama Rajan and Julia M. Wright (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998), 176-210.

Hogle explores how "gothic" Frankenstein is by tracing it to Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto; his essay "explores this fragmentation through a psychoanalysis of capitalism as it is (dis)figured in the Gothic from Walpole to Mary Shelley" (13).

Kallerud, Mauritz Royce. "The Genre of Conjectural History: Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Mary Shelley, and William Blake in the New World (Language, Science, Society)." Ph.D. diss., State U of New York at Buffalo, 1998, DAI, 59-09A (1998): 3450, 242 pages.

"Conjectural history" is a genre which permeated European thought from the seventeenth to the early nineteenth centuries; it discussed subjects such as the origin of language, the sciences, and society not covered by recorded history. Rousseau, Mary Shelley, and Blake "called into question the anthropological fictions upon which this genre was founded." Kallerud discusses Rousseau's Essay on the Origin of Languages, The Social Contract, and Reveries of the Solitary Walker; Mary Shelley's strategic revision of contract theory in Frankenstein and The Last Man; and Blake's substitution of a "pedagogic approach to human relations for conjectural history's legal approach" in Visions of the Daughters of Albion and The Marriage of Heaven and Hell.

Komisaruk, Adam Carl. "Private Persons: Class and the Construction of Sexuality in British Romanticism." Ph.D. diss., U of California, Los Angeles, 1998, DAI, 59-09A (1998): 3466, 228 pages.

Komisaruk examines sexual self-regulation among the eighteenth-century bourgeoisie, noting how "hostility toward sex was construed as a prerequisite of social privilege." Moral, legal, and scientific discourses sought to "proscribe sexual practices" that "contradicted the bourgeois standard of the reproductive marriage." Komisaruk examines the "Vaudracour and Julia" tale in Wordsworth's Prelude, book 9; Wordsworth's nostalgia for "patrimonial honor" is more hostile to consummated love than the tyranny of the ancien-regime which he and his protagonist condemn. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein provides a more ironic view of domestic ideology and conservative sexual politics; "gentle" homes of major characters are "breeding-grounds of alienation." By including contemporary politics in her novel, she compares familial to global preoccupation with private interests. Blake's pagan fertility-cults in The Four Zoas reflect his work as an engraver to the London antiquarians, "genteel libertines who epitomized the link between sexual and sociopolitical chauvinism."

Kraus, Carolyn Wells. "A Discourse of Female Bastardy (Flora Tristan, Violette Leduc, Carolyn Steedman, Dorothy Allison, Mary Shelley, Bastardy)." Ph.D. diss., U of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1998, DAI, 59-10 (1999): 3466, 228 pages.

This dissertation explores the lives and books of Flora Tristan, nineteenth-century utopian feminist who wrote Peregrinations of a Pariah, 1838; Violette Leduc, author of a 1964 autobiography, La Batarde; Carolyn Steedman, author of Landscape for a Good Woman (1987); Dorothy Allison, author of Bastard out of Carolina (1992); and Mary Shelley, author of Frankenstein (1818), which takes up the theme of bastardy and illegitimacy. Kraus focuses on "the peculiar logic of bastardy, the bastard quest, the impasse created by bastardy's radical contradictions, and the struggle to unlock that impasse through literary re-conceptions of lives." This study includes autobiographical segments and examinations of female bastardy and power in the lives of Flora Tristan, American ambassador and playwright Clare Booth Luce, and Argentinean first lady Eva Peron. "These bastard women straddle two realities: the culture into which they were born and the sense of being external to it, which is like another culture."

Laplace-Sinatra, Michael. "Science, Gender, and Otherness in Shelley's Frankenstein and Kenneth Branagh's Film Adaptation." ERR 9.2 (Spring 1998): 253-70.

Levine, George. "The Ambiguous Heritage of Frankenstein." In Critical Essays on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, ed. Mary Lowe-Evans (New York: G. K. Hall; London: Prentice, 1998), 25-38. Reprinted from Endurance of Frankenstein: Essays on Mary Shelley's Novel, ed. George Levine and U. C. Knoepflmacher (Berkeley: U of California P, 1979), 3-30.

Levine explores the following themes in Shelley's novel: birth and creation; the overreacher; rebellion and moral isolation; the unjust society; the defects of domesticity; the double; and technology, entropy, and the monstrous.

Lew, Joseph W. "The Plague of Imperial Desire: Montesquieu, Gibbon, Brougham, and Mary Shelley's The Last Man." In Romanticism and Colonialism: Writing and Empire, 1780-1830, ed. Tim Fulford and Peter J. Kitson (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998), 261-78.

Lew argues against an autobiographical reading of The Last Man, claiming that the novel was not composed solely because of Byron's death. Such a reading "cannot account for Shelley's marvelous transformation of Byron's rather inglorious death at Missolonghi"; Shelley allows this character's death to introduce the plague into Europe. Lew examines writings by Montesquieu, Gibbon, and Brougham, eighteenth-century theorists of corruption, despotism, and imperialism, "to elucidate Shelley's specifically Romantic anxieties about the dangers of Oriental 'infection' for individual bodies and for the body politic" (262).

Lokke, Kari. "Sibylline Leaves: Mary Shelley's Valperga and the Legacy of Corinne." In Cultural Interactions in the Romantic Age: Critical Essays in Comparative Literature, ed. Gregory Maertz (Albany: State U of New York P, 1998), 157-73.

Lokke extends Furst's discussion of the salons of Rachel Varnhagen and Madame de Staël. Discusses how Corinne influenced Valperga and The Last Man in its use of "visionary images of the woman writer" and "allegorical strategies" (158). See No. 230.

Lowe-Evans, Mary. "Introduction." In Critical Essays on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, ed. Mary Lowe-Evans (New York: G. K. Hall; London: Prentice, 1998), 1-21.

Lowe-Evans, Mary. "Sweetheart of Darkness: Kurtz's Intended as Progeny of Frankenstein's Bride." In Critical Essays on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, ed. Mary Lowe-Evans (New York: G. K. Hall; London: Prentice, 1998), 203-13.

Responding to essays by Stephen Behrendt and Chris Baldick ("Monsters of Empire: Conrad and Lawrence," in In Frankenstein's Shadow: Myth, Monstrosity, and Nineteenth-Century Writing [1987]), Lowe-Evans's essay argues that "the separate spheres represented as so inimical to male-female equality and communication in Frankenstein become thoroughly uncivilizing in Heart of Darkness" (17).

Lowe-Evans, Mary, ed. Critical Essays on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. New York: G. K. Hall; London: Prentice Hall International, 1998.

Essays by George Levine, Sandra Gilbert, Ellen Herson Wittmann, Terence Harpold, Betty T. Bennett, Stephen Behrendt, William D. Brewer, Victoria Middleton, Mary Lowe-Evans, Tracy Cox, and Emily W. Sunstein.

Mallory, Anne Boyd. "Acting Out: Theater, Revolution, and the English Novel, 1790-1848 (Edmund Burke, Jane Austen, Elizabeth Inchbald, Mary Shelley, William Makepeace Thackeray)." Ph.D. diss., Cornell U, 1998, DAI, 59-07A (1998): 2523, 194 pages.

Theater emerges in literature as the antithesis of the great house. This dissertation discusses how revolutionary passion circulates in houses and novels in "disguised, theatricalized form." For Mallory, the novel is a "stage" on which ambivalence--manifested as boredom, melancholia, and mania--assumes theatrical form. Austen's Mansfield Park (1814) makes reference to Inchbald's adaptation of Kotzebue's Lovers' Vows: Fanny Price "acts out" by becoming a source of theatrical and revolutionary disturbance in the household. Mary Shelley's The Last Man is the self-dramatization of a bored, post-revolutionary moderate. Close readings of Inchbald's A Simple Story and of the theatrical and Napoleonic protagonist Becky Sharp, in Thackeray's Vanity Fair, comprise separate chapters.

Mellor, Anne K. "A Feminist Critique of Science." In Critical Essays on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, ed. Mary Lowe-Evans (New York: G. K. Hall; London: Prentice, 1998), 62-87. Reprinted from Mary Shelley: Her Life, Her Fiction, Her Monsters, by Anne K. Mellor (New York: Routledge, 1988), 89-114.

Middleton, Victoria. "Exile, Isolation, and Accommodation in The Last Man: The Strategies of a Survivor." In Critical Essays on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, ed. Mary Lowe-Evans (New York: G. K. Hall; London: Prentice, 1998), 166-82. Reprinted from Elektra in Exile: Women Writers and Political Fiction, ed. Victoria Middleton (New York: Garland, 1988), 32-76.

Middleton identifies the theme of writing as therapy in Mary Shelley's The Last Man, where "the self-reflexive action of writing nullifies the pain of consciousness" for Lionel Verney, the title character. Middleton argues that "after Percy Shelley's death--and in large part because of his death--Mary Shelley became increasingly conservative in her life, works, and politics. Lionel Verney is transformed from a Romantic to a Victorian narrator in The Last Man, echoing Mary Shelley's own increasing conservatism. This view is challenged by Betty T. Bennett and Emily Sunstein" (16).

Morrison, Lucy Jane. "British Women Writers in the Public Sphere, 1800-1840 (Mary Shelley, Jane Austen, Letitia Elizabeth Landon, Women Writers, Conduct Literature)." Ph.D. diss., U of South Carolina, 1998, DAI, 59-07A (1998): 2525, 316 pages.

Jane Austen, Letitia Landon, and Mary Shelley evaded restrictions placed on them and were part of "a larger movement of indirect defiance." Conduct books demonstrate how women writers "could successfully evade masculine discourse's limitations from within its boundaries." Close readings of Mansfield Park (1814) and Emma (1816) consider the significance of Austen's intertextual use of Kotzebue's Lovers' Vows (1799) and The Birth-Day (1798). Landon's commentaries on Felicia Hemans show that Landon perceived herself and Hemans in a complex relationship to the masculine literary sphere. Morrison discusses Madame de Staël's Corinne; ou, l'Italie (1807) as a hitherto unexplored source for Mary Shelley's Valperga. Shelley confirms de Staël's depiction of women artists' dependency upon the male gaze, but "challenges a society which alienates women artists by privileging physical appearance over individual integrity." Morrison questions the validity of the literary "sisterhood" of nineteenth-century women writers that Ellen Moers and Elaine Showalter have posited.

Nichols, Joan K. Mary Shelley, Frankenstein's Creator: First Science Fiction Writer. Berkeley, Calif.: Conari P, 1998.

Nichols, Joan K. Mary Shelley: Frankenstein's Mother. Berkeley, Calif.: Conari P, 1998.

Payling, Catherine. "Report from Rome." KSR 12 (1998): xi.

Payling notes the importance of the discovery, during Mary Shelley's actual bicentenary, of the lost manuscript of a short story by her: Maurice, or, The Fisher's Cot. "The owners, descendants of the child for whom the story had originally been written, found it in a chest while reorganising their house in Tuscany. The Curator was asked to help with establishing its authenticity. She inspected the MS with Ms Claire Tomalin, the biographer and historian, making reference to the handwriting in manuscripts of Mary Shelley in the Keats-Shelley Memorial House, as well as to watermarks and other criteria, and both were confident that it was genuine. Their authentication was subsequently confirmed by the scholar Dr. Nora Crook. The Association decided to bring the owners to London at the time of the exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery on Mary Wollstonecraft and Mary Shelley-Hyeneas in Petticoats--to talk to interested publishers. It is now to be published in September 1998 by Viking Penguin in association with KSMA" (KSR viii). See also entry under Keats.

Seymour, Miranda. "Tales from the Boxroom (Exhibition: Hyenas in Petticoats)." TLS 4945 (Jan. 9, 1998): 17.

This article discusses the exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery, which focuses on Mary Wollstonecraft and her daughter Mary Shelley. Mary Shelley occupies the first room, with much of the display devoted to Frankenstein. "A thematic treatment based on circles of friendship works well for Wollstonecraft, but works less well for her daughter. Although captions in the exhibition are not always accurate, and the catalog illustrations often vary in quality, the show does contain many fascinating items." See Claire Tomalin's review of the same exhibition.

Sunstein, Emily W. "Mary Shelley: Romance and Reality." In Critical Essays on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, ed. Mary Lowe-Evans (New York: G. K. Hall; London: Prentice, 1998), 230-45. Reprinted from Mary Shelley: Romance and Reality, by Emily W. Sunstein (Boston: Little, 1989), 387-403, 455-56.

Emily W. Sunstein discusses the difficulty of constructing a biography of Mary Shelley, based on her 1989 biography Mary Shelley: Romance and Reality. Sunstein explores the reputation of Shelley from idealization to defamation; "the low critical regard that Shelley suffered for decades readily explains previous lack of interest in Frankenstein's origins" (19). She becomes "a martyr sacrificing herself at the altar of Percy Shelley's fame in one era and a virago hindering his poetic progress in another" (19).

Thoman, Charles J. "Sir Humphry Davy and Frankenstein." Journal of Chemical Education 75.4 (Apr. 1998): 495-96.

Todd, Janet. "Mary Wollstonecraft and Enlightenment Desire." WC 29.3 (Summer 1998): 186-92.

Tomalin, Claire. "A Tale of Two Marys." History Today 48.2 (Feb. 1998): 29-30.

Discusses the exhibition Hyenas in Petticoats at the National Portrait Gallery, England, which presents Mary Wollstonecraft and her daughter Mary Shelley as central figures in the Byron/Shelley circle. Tomalin comments upon the extraordinary range in the work of Mary Wollstonecraft and Mary Shelley: both women produced novels, travel books, children's stories, and essays, as well as translations and edited volumes.

Williams, Nicholas M. Ideology and Utopia in the Poetry of William Blake. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.

The third chapter and conclusion of this work may interest Mary Wollstonecraft and Mary Shelley scholars. Chapter 3 is titled "The Discourse of Women's Liberation in Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Europe, and Visions of the Daughters of Albion" (71-97). The conclusion is titled "Conclusion: The Function of Utopianism at the Present Time" (207-19).

Wittmann, Ellen Herson. "Mary Shelley's Daemon." In Critical Essays on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, ed. Mary Lowe-Evans (New York: G. K. Hall; London: Prentice, 1998), 88-100.

Wittmann compares "the position of Mary Shelley's Creature with that of Diotima-especially with regard to the Creature's experience of mixed pain and pleasure as he observes the loving gestures of the De Lacy family" (13).

Wohlpart, A. James. "A Tradition of Male Poetics: Mary Shelley's Frankenstein as an Allegory of Art." Midwest Quarterly 39.3 (Spring 1998): 265-79.

The writer argues that the critique of artistic creativity apparent in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein finds its locus in the male-dominated artistic arena of her time. The novel criticizes not only Byron and Shelley, but also "the tradition that led up to this period, suggesting that artistic creativity had predominantly become a male pursuit. He contends that at the heart of Shelley's critique is the way in which male creativity omits any feminine influence and thus creates a series of monsters. He concludes that Shelley does not suggest that a sudden acceptance of the feminine will alleviate the overwhelming male dominance of art, but shows how such a domination insidiously inscribes the female in such a way that responsibility for the monster's actions is unfairly forced on her as she becomes a semblance of the monster himself."


Romantic Circles - Home / Scholarly Resources / Current Bibliography: Keats-Shelley Journal / Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, 1998