Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1998
WORKS: COLLECTED, SELECTED, SINGLE , TRANSLATED
Davreu, Robert, trans. Ode au vent d'Ouest: Adonaïs et autres poèmes. Paris: J. Corti, 1998.
Includes English and French translations of "Ode to the West Wind" and other poems by Shelley.
Shelley, Percy Bysshe. Poèmes. Paris: Textuel, 1998.
English and French translations of selected poems by Shelley.
Thompson, Edward, ed. Percy Bysshe Shelley: A Collection of Poems. London: Crumb Elbow Publishers, 1998.
Walter, Nicolas, ed. The Necessity of Atheism, by Percy Bysshe Shelley. London: G. W. Foote, 1998.
Webb, Timothy, ed. Percy Bysshe Shelley: Selected Poems. London: J. M. Dent, 1998.
BOOKS AND ARTICLES RELATING TO P. B. SHELLEY
Batten, Guinn. The Orphaned Imagination: Melancholy and Commodity Culture in English Romanticism. Durham, N.C.: Duke UP, 1998.
An introduction on romantic melancholy and commodity culture, with chapters on "Byron's In-Between Art of Ennui: 'The World is Full of Orphans'" (21-71) and "Shelley's Absent Fathers: 'The Awful Shadow of Some Unseen Power'" (119-48). Other chapters discuss Blake's The Four Zoas and Wordsworth's 1805 Prelude. Batten explores the fact that Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, and Keats lost at least one parent early in life and both before becoming adults. "Byron, like his self-styled Cain, digressively and obsessively returned as a poet to the scene of his parents' fall into mortality, to ruined estates and squandered legacies for whose loss Byron and Cain blame their antecedents, but especially their Father" (27). "Whether Shelley pursued an ideal other in a father figure or an ideal Other in some version of idealism," Batten argues in her reading of Alastor, "he consistently found that such pursuits left him, literally and palpably, with 'nothing'" (133). Batten discusses Byron's Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, photocopies of manuscripts of Don Juan, Cain, and his letters, as well as Shelley's Alastor, "Mont Blanc," "Eyes: A Fragment," and "Hymn to Intellectual Beauty," among other works.
Discusses ideology and its "logic of exchange" by considering Julia Kristeva's Powers of Horror, Black Sun, Tales of Love, and Revolution in Poetic Language; Judith Butler's Gender Trouble; and Slavoj Zizek's The Metases of Enjoyment.
Close readings of Byron's Childe Harold (34-36), Don Juan (45-71), and Cain (37-45), as well as Hours of Idleness (50) and The Prisoner of Chillon (36); readings of Alastor (133-40), "Hymn to Intellectual Beauty" (119-24), and "Mont Blanc" (141-48); general discussion (119-30) of Prometheus Unbound (120,131) and The Triumph of Life (120); discusses Keats' "The Eve of St. Agnes" (220-36), letters (234-35), "Ode to a Nightingale" (216-36), "To Autumn" (234), and "When I Have Fears That I May Cease to Be" (235).
Blyton, Carey. Lachrymae: In Memoriam John Dowland: Five Songs for High Voice and String Orchestra, Op. 23: Composed 1956/1960. Modus Music, 1998. Musical score. Includes musical settings for poems by Shelley.
Bonca, Teddi Chichester.
Shelley's Mirrors of Love: Narcissism, Sacrifice, and Sorority. New York: SUNY, 1999.
Discusses Shelleyan narcissism and "discovers an artist fiercely engaged with problems of (gender) identity, self-idolatry, and the nature of love itself." Psychobiographical in approach, this book makes use of Heniz Kohut and Jessica Banjamin to analyze Shelley's fiction, poetry, and letters. Discusses scientific theories of Shelley's day that helped the poet envision how the energy of electricity, sympathy, and sexuality converge to create the kind of erotically interpenetrating universe that occurs at the close of Prometheus Unbound.
Brown, James. "'Ozymandias': The Riddle of the Sands." KSR 12 (1998) 51-76.
"The manner in which one's view of the poem can develop, and even invert itself, is among its most striking characteristics" (51).
The Internal and the External: A Comparison of the Artistic Use of Natural Imagery in English Romantic and Chinese Classic Poetry. New York: Peter Lang, 1998.
This book compares the use of "natural imagery" in English Romantic and Chinese Classic (Tang and Song dynasties) lyrics to challenge Paul De Man's belief, expressed in Blindness and Insight and The Rhetoric of Romanticism, that "the merging of the internal and external can never be reached in poetic language" (Cao 1). Cao favors M. H. Abrams' perspective in "Structure and Style in the Greater Romantic Lyric." "The difference between Romantic and Chinese Tang/Song poets in their use of natural imagery is not that the former is subjective and the latter is objective, for although the Romantics use nature as a theme while the Chinese poets do not, they both employ natural imagery for expressing the inner world" (149). Compares Wang Wei, a major poet of the Tang dynasty influenced by Buddhism, with Wordsworth; contrasts Wei's "Mt. Zhongnan" and "Tintern Abbey" (8). Shows how jing (scene/the external) and qing (feeling/the internal) became a main concern in Chinese classic poetics beginning with the Tang dynasty;
discusses the connotation of shenyun and sublime and makes use of Cecile Chu-chin Sun's study of three analogical modes in Chinese and English poetry, which introduces the concept of quin and jing in Chinese poetics. Vincent Yang's comparison of Su Shi and Wordsworth and An-yan Tang Wang's comparison of Du Fu and Yeats are also important for this study (3), which compares Du Fu's Confucian influenced verse ("Autumn Meditation") with Coleridge's "Eolian Harp" and "Frost at Midnight" (14; 17). Discusses Shelley as a romantic theorist and as a poet (118-20). Chapter 2, titled "The Use of Natural Objects" (43-78), is the most relevant to Keats and Shelley. In this chapter, Cao contrasts Su Shi's poem on the willow catkin with Shelley's "Sensitive Plant" ("the poets use personification to describe a plant and express their feelings by describing the fate of the plant" ); Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind" with Li Bai's "A Song of White Clouds" ("a rare example of a poem focusing on the image of the cloud in Chinese poetry, the cloud is used to show the poet's feeling upon leaving a friend" ); Shelley's "The Cloud" with Li Bai's famous "Drinking Alone by Moonlight," which treats the moon as a fellow human, inviting the moon to drink with him (58); and Shelley's "To a Skylark" with Li Bai's "Peng" ("Unlike Shelley's skylark, which is a disembodied spirit, Li Bai's Peng is presented as a motor, kinesthetic image conveying 'tactile and muscular impressions,' though the Peng is not a real bird but exists only in the poet's imagination" ). Similar comparisons are made with Du Fu's "Lone Wild Goose" (67-69) and Keats's "Ode to a Nightingale" (68). This book does not include an index.
Carissimi, Giacomo. Hymnum Cantemus Domino from Quattro Pezzi Sacri/Giuseppe Verdi. Three Motets, Op. 39/Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy. Winter Cantata: (Cantata No. 2, Op. 97)/Vincet Perischetti. In Praise of Music/David Conte. No distributor given, 1998. Sound recording. Includes musical settings for poems by Shelley.
Chandler, James. "Concerning the Influence of America on the Mind: Western Settlements, 'English Writers,' and the Case of U.S. culture." American Literary History 10.1 (Spring 1998): 84-123.
Chandler considers Morris Birkbeck and John Keats in this article in order to discuss how U.S. culture "problematizes notions of ordinary character and ordinary life." Percy Shelley believed that American culture represents the incarnation of the doctrine of utility as developed in eighteenth-century social theory; Shelley's judgment "impressively anticipates the larger implications of the issue."
Cheeke, Stephen. "Shelley, Byron, and the Maniac Poetics." KSR 12 (1998): 131-46.
Cheeke discusses Byron's The Lament of Tasso, Shelley's fragment of a drama based on Tasso, "To Byron," and "Julian and Maddalo" in order to explore each poet's treatment of madness as a metaphor and reality;
specific reference is made to Plato's Ion, which also explores the trope of madness. Both writers were interested in the "self-dispossessing inspiration" connected with poetic creation (134).
Cheeke, Stephen. "Shelley's The Cenci: Economies of a 'Familiar' Language." KSJ 47 (1998): 142-60.
The Compleat Silver Lining: 26 Distinguished Actors Read 41 of Their Favorite Poems. Audiocassette. BMP, Ltd., 1998.
Includes readings of Keats's "To Autumn" (Simon Ward), "A Thing of Beauty" (James Earl Jones), and "Sonnet to Sleep" (Patrick Stewart);
Byron's "She Walks in Beauty" (David Warner); and Shelley's "Ozymandias" (John Standing) and "Indian Serenade" (David Warner).
Cox, Jeffrey N.
Poetry and Politics in the Cockney School: Keats, Shelley, Hunt, and Their Circle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.
Dane, Joseph A. "On the Instability of Vessels and Narratives: A Nautical Perspective on the Sinking of the Don Juan." KSJ 47 (1998): 63-86.
Examines the accident in which Shelley was killed, while sailing on his boat, the Don Juan.
Davenport, Diana. The Shelleys at Nantgwillt 1812. Chipping Norton: D. Davenport, 1998.
Discusses Percy Shelley's "homes and haunts" in Nantgwillt, Wales, and his relations with Harriet Westbrook Shelley.
Ferriss, Suzanne. "Percy Bysshe Shelley's The Cenci and the Rhetoric of Tyranny." In British
Romantic Drama: Historical and Critical Essays, ed. Terence Allan Hoagwood and Daniel P. Watkins (Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson UP;
London: Associated UP, 1998), 208-28.
Ferriss "studies Shelley's depiction of events from the Italian renaissance to show how Shelley's departures from his antecedent texts identify the French Revolution as the subtext of The Cenci" (19). Shelley uses the example of Beatrice in The Cenci to question whether any revolutionary actions are possible following the example of the terror in France. Ferriss contrasts The Cenci with the "perpetual Orphic song" of the "great Republic" in Prometheus Unbound.
Finegan, Ann Jennifer. "For a Charging of the Passions: Sex and Metaphysics in English Romantic Poetry (Percy Bysshe Shelley, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Blake, William Wordsworth)." Ph.D. diss., U of New South Wales, 1998, DAI, 59-08A (1998): 2999.
Inspired by Lacan's Encore, this dissertation analyzes the consummation scenes which appear in English Romanticism's "long, metonymical poems of desire--Shelley's Prometheus Unbound, Keats's Endymion, and the Hyperion poems." Coleridge's theological writings are examined against Kant's synthetic imagination "from the point of view of the repression of desire." Artaud's essay on Coleridge uncovers Coleridge's "disavowing tactics which reveal the processes of the unconscious under the screen of a fake occult." Coleridge's unpublished Notebooks show that his unfinished Logosophia "attempted to reconcile logos with desire." Blake and Wordsworth are discussed through Lacan's metaphorics of delusion and Heidegger's aletheia ("through which being deconceals").
Foreman, William John. "Finding a Way That Can Be Spoken: The Poetic Activity of Metaphor Twisting in the Rhetoric of Politics (Jonathan Swift, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mario Cuomo)." Ph.D. diss., U of New Mexico, 1998, DAI, 59-07A (1998): 2480, 222 pages.
This dissertation examines "a certain kind of metaphor innovation--an innovation I call twisting--that occurs when one rhetor coopts the metaphor of another, turning the entailments of the original metaphor sour. I argue that this rhetorical metaphor innovation is not only a political, but a poetic act, since innovation on metaphor is a central activity in poetics." Foreman makes use of Aristotle's theory of metaphor, as well as theories by I. A. Richards, Colin Turbayne, George Lakoff, Mark Turner, and Mark Johnson.
Fraistat, Neil. "Whose Sadak Is Wandering? P. B. Shelley and a Problem of Attribution." KSJ 47 (1998): 18-28.
Franklin, George Siesel, Jr. "In Pursuit of the Real: Skepticism in the Poetry of Eliot, Hardy, and Stevens (T. S. Eliot, Thomas Hardy, Wallace Stevens)." Ph.D. diss., Brandeis U, 1998, DAI, 59-04A (1998): 1157.
Eliot, Hardy, and Stevens each had strong affinities to Shelley, and responded to his assertion that "nothing exists but as it is perceived." "The concern of poetry is always meaning . . . and radical skepticism" challenges poetry's purpose in denying that we can ever know reality. Eliot's turn to religion, Hardy's cultivation of heuristic belief, and Stevens' search for a supreme fiction are viewed as replies to Shelley's challenge. Eliot uses characters who speak from a condition of greater knowledge than the human, such as the "familiar compound ghost" in "Little Gidding" and Rousseau in The Triumph of Life.
Gillespie, Robert Windsor. "'Like Lamps into the World's Tempestuous Night': The Development of Shelley's Concept of Evolutionary Revolution." M.A. thesis, San Diego State U, 1998.
Goldberg, Brian. "'A Sea Reflecting Love': Tennyson, Shelley, and the Aesthetics of the Image in the Marketplace." MLQ 59.1 (Mar. 1998): 71-97.
"Percy Shelley, whose work exemplified difficulty and abstraction, was pivotal to formulations of aesthetic value that described 'taste' as special and rare. However, in his account of love, Shelley acted as the potentially democratic defender of a socially unifying sensibility, providing Alfred Tennyson and Arthur Hallam with a vocabulary for reconciling commercialism, aesthetic distinction, and the moral responsibility of the poet. Tennyson's close work with Shelley's imagery had among its aims the preservation of representation's moral meaning as well as its heterogeneous appeal. Two of Tennyson's works that are marked by Shelleyan images-'The Lady of Shalott' and the Palace of Art--criticize the perniciousness of a marketplace that elevates the illustrative over the linguistic and robs visual experience of its transformative power."
Gurr, Jens Martin. "Shelley's Misreading of Aeschylus' Prometheus." In British Romantics
as Readers: Intertextualities, Maps of Misreading, Reinterpretations;
Festschrift fur Horst Meller, ed. Michael Gassenmeier, Petre Bridzun, Jens Martin Gurr, and Frank Eric Pointner (Heidelberg: Universitatsverlag C. Winter, 1998), 71-82.
Shelley's debt to Aeschylus's drama is far greater than critics have previously realized. His rejection of Aeschylus in the preface to Prometheus Unbound can be read as a defence against "an overwhelming precursor" (81). Gurr appropriates Harold Bloom's thesis in The Anxiety of Influence (1973) while rejecting the "esoteric jargon" that characterizes Poetry and Repression (1976). "If applied not to the evasive phenomenon of style as Bloom does-despite claims to the contrary-but to the treatment of subject matter, The Anxiety of Influence can fruitfully be used to analyze the relationship of Shelley's Prometheus to that of Aeschylus" (73).
Hamlin, Cyrus. Hermeneutics of Form: Romantic Poetics in Theory and Practice. New Haven: Henry R. Schwab, 1998.
This book "consists in a series of essays, all of which were written independently of one another . . . over a twelve-year period from 1971 to 1983," when Hamlin was teaching at the University of Toronto (22). Chapter 5 contains an addendum on Keats and Shelley as "practitioners of the Romantic ode" (24). Hamlin's interest in Hölderlin influences readings of a number of poems. Hamlin discusses Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind" (240-53) in terms of Shelley's use of a Greek chorus and Dantesque rhyme scheme, with echoes of souls as dead leaves from Virgil's Aeneid VI. Hamlin finds the last stanza of the ode crucial for a consideration of the work's hermeneutics of form (250). "The poem itself as achieved form serves as an instrument or vehicle for the voice of the poet, which is no longer merely a human subject or the individual self" (250). Keats's "Ode to a Nightingale" (238-40, 242-46, 253, 254) is also discussed. "No reader of Keats' 'Nightingale' will fail to observe . . . that the structure of the ode is defined by the experience within the poet's mind resulting from his response to the bird's song" (245). Nine chapters on "The Limits of Interpretation"; "The Negativity of Reading"; "The Conscience of Narrative"; "The Poetics of Self-Consciousness";
"Reading the Romantic Ode"; "The Temporality of Selfhood"; "Platonic Dialogue and Romantic Irony"; "Strategies of Reversal in Literary Narrative";
and "The Faults of Vision; a Dialogue in Identity and Poetry." Chapter 5, which contrasts Coleridge's "Dejection: An Ode" with Keats's and Shelley's poetry, concludes by discussing Hegel and the Romantic ode (6).
Allan, and Daniel P. Watkins, eds. British Romantic Drama: Historical and Critical Essays. Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson UP; London: Associated UP, 1998.
This volume "intentionally gravitates toward discussion of lesser-known works of the period, rather than such major dramas as Manfred or Prometheus Unbound, because the poetic dramas by Byron and Shelley have already been the subject of many useful historicist investigations, and because lesser-known works--for instance, the dramas of Scott, Wordsworth's Borderers, and the many revolutionary and counter-revolutionary dramas of the period--provide avenues into historical and ideological issues that cannot be adequately addressed by exclusive attention to dramas long recognized as canonical" (15). Many of these essays were previously published in Wordsworth Circle (Kucich, Johnston, and Nicholes), though some have been revised (Hoagwood, Ferriss).
Hogle, Jerrold E. "Percy Bysshe Shelley." In Literature
of the Romantic Period: A Bibliographial Guide, ed. Michael O'Neill (Oxford: Clarendon P, 1998), 118-42.
Hogle notes that two Shelleys have emerged from nineteenth-century criticism: "those who would turn him into the ethereal 'pure poet' safe for developing middle-class tastes (including Mary Shelley, the first of his posthumous editors) and those who would retain him as a voice for radical social reform (from Horace Smith to Bernard Shaw)" (118).
Höhne, Horst. "Shelley's Banquet: Strategies of Reading." In British
Romantics as Readers: Intertextualities, Maps of Misreading, Reinterpretations;
Festschrift fur Horst Meller, ed. Michael Gassenmeier, Petre Bridzun, Jens Martin Gurr, and Frank Eric Pointner (Heidelberg: Universitatsverlag C. Winter, 1998), 83-98.
Shelley's Banquet, while initially undertaken for want of poetic inspiration, became a central element in his "passion for reforming the world" (84) by improving that world's understanding of eros, love, and sexuality. Shelley's letters show that he believed some fundamental change in English institutions was necessary to prevent a social and political catastrophe (86). "The very speed with which he managed to render the text into a universally praised English Banquet-it took him only eight days to do the job-and the further plans he had with the finished product show that the effort was central to Shelley's poetic and political creed" (86).
Johnston, Kenneth R., and Joseph Nicholes. "Transitory Actions, Men Betrayed: The French Revolution in the English Revolution in Romantic Drama." In British
Romantic Drama: Historical and Critical Essays, ed. Terence Allan Hoagwood and Daniel P. Watkins (Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson UP;
London: Associated UP, 1998), 115-58.
This essay examines five Romantic dramas concerned with the English Revolution, "showing that the political content of these dramas is directly relevant to British politics after the French Revolution" (17). Johnston and Nicholes include discussions of Charles Lamb's John Woodvil, William Godwin's Faulkner, Percy Bysshe Shelley's Charles the First, Mary Russell Mitford's Charles the First, and Robert Browning's Strafford: An Historical Tragedy. "These dramas insist . . . that the actions of individuals are seldom only private . . .and that personal life carries within it the pressures and principles of the age to which it belongs" (18).
Joseph, Elizabeth. "William Wordsworth as Rhetor in The River Duddon Sonnets." Ph.D. diss., Texas Woman's U, 1998, DAI, 59-07A (1998): 2522, 161 pages.
Wordsworth's The River Duddon sonnets show his craftsmanship and have not received adequate recognition. He deserves to be ranked with Spenser, Sidney, Shakespeare, and Milton; his influence on Shelley, Tennyson, and Arnold "needs further investigation."
Keach, William. "Cythna's Subtler Language." SIR 37:1 (Spring 1998): 7-17.
Kearney, Anthony. "Reading Shelley: A Problem for Late Victorian Studies." VP 36.1 (Spring 1998): 59-74.
Kipperman, Mark. "Coleridge, Shelley, Davy, and Science's Millennium." Criticism 40.3 (Summer 1998): 409-37.
"The model for Queen Mab's visionary science as well as for Coleridge's millennial optimism in his 1794 Religious Musings was Erasmus Darwin's enormously popular poem, The Botanic Garden, whose scientific footnotes ran to 100,000 words" (409). This essay explores the contrast between Shelley's and Coleridge's political responses to the usefulness of scientific knowledge and considers the relationship between idealism and the rejection or acceptance of scientific method and empirical knowledge. Kipperman's essay includes a consideration of the contributions of Dr. Andrew Ure in reviving an executed murderer using a voltaic pile (November 1818), Hans Christian Oersted's (1777-1851) belief that "electricity and magnetism were twin aspects of a single 'original' power," and André-Marie Ampère's (1778-1836) argument that "magnetic forces circled around current-carrying wires and that helixes of such wires could actually create magnets" (419).
Kucich, Greg. "'A Haunted Ruin': Romantic Drama, Renaissance Tradition, and the Critical Establishment." In British
Romantic Drama: Historical and Critical Essays, ed. Terence Allan Hoagwood and Daniel P. Watkins (Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson UP;
London: Associated UP, 1998), 56-83.
Kucich argues that the very success of London's nineteenth-century playhouse drove Romantic writers away from it (58). Among other topics, he explores the elitist implications of Shelley's and Byron's experiments in closet drama and seeks to explain why Beddoes and Keats felt "uneasy about their dramatic ambitions" (77).
Kucich, Greg. "'This Horrid Theatre of Human Sufferings': Gendering the Stages of History in Catherine Macaulay and Percy Bysshe Shelley." In Lessons of Romanticism:
A Critical Companion, ed. Thomas Pfau and Robert F. Gleckner (Durham, N.C.: Duke UP, 1998), 448-65.
"The transformative impact of Macaulay's feminism on Percy Shelley is particularly revealing, especially considering our recent tendencies to find Shelley a principal upholder of romanticism's masculinist poetic ideologies--a 'cannibaliz[er]' of 'female attributes' (Mellor, 'On Romanticism and Feminism,' 7). Our attention to his engagement with Macaulay's revisionary historicism should complicate our developing sense of his own gender positioning and its capacity for fluid change" (451). Kucich discusses Shelley's "incorporation" of Macaulay's eight-volume republican History of England (1764-83) into his own historical drama, Charles the First.
Levin, Susan M.
The Romantic Art of Confession: De Quincey, Musset, Sand, Lamb, Hogg, Frémy, Soulié, Janin. Columbia, S.C.: Camden House, 1998.
Levin argues that romantic confessions form a "distinct, literary mode" (2). Discusses Thomas De Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium Eater in light of Shelley's Defence of Poetry. Interesting account of Lamb's "Confessions of a Drunkard."
Magarian, Barry. "Shelley's Alastor, The Mutability of Identity." KSR 12 (1998): 77-104.
Alastor is indeterminate "because it never offers the reader anything approaching a view of the meaning and significance of the Poet who is at its centre" (77). The author explores the suggestion that Alastor was modeled on Rousseau, particularly on Confessions and Reveries of the Solitary Walker.
Romantic Imperialism: Universal Empire and the Culture of Modernity. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.
Makdisi argues that England's process of universal empire has to be understood in global terms, beyond the British and European viewpoint, and that developments in India, Africa, and the Arab world (up to and including our own time) enable us to understand more fully the texts and contexts of British Romanticism. The book is divided as follows: "Introduction: Universal Empire," "Home Imperial: Wordsworth's London and the Spot of Time," "Wordsworth and the Image of Nature," "Waverley and the Cultural Politics of Dispossession," "Domesticating Exoticism: Transformations of Britain's Orient, 1785-1835," "Beyond the Realm of Dreams: Byron, Shelley, and the East," "William Blake and Universal Empire," and "Conclusions". "The Oriental space developed in Alastor represents a reclamation of an Oriental terrain from previous visions and versions of the East and its incorporation into the emergent space-time of modernity. Thus it not only anticipates the paradigms of Orientalist discourse associated both with James Mill [in History of British India] and with late nineteenth-century English Orientalists (many of whom were inspired by Mill's History) but it contributes to the historical production of the Orient as a space for European knowledge, discipline, and control. The version of the Orient that is produced in Childe Harold II--the Orient as refuge from and potential alternative to modernity--was contested and redefined in later spatial productions; its critical and imaginary terrain had to be seized, cleansed, and totally re-organized and re-invented. The Oriental space produced in Alastor symbolizes the beginning of that reclamation, the production of a new Orient that the poem 'discovers,' which would later be embellished, developed, augmented, and improved in succeeding visions and versions of the East" (123).
Mazzeo, Tilar J. "'Sporting Sketches during a Short Stay in Hindustane': Bodleian MS Shelley Adds. e.21 and Travel Literature in the Shelley/Byron Circle." Romanticism 4.2 (1998): 174-88.
Discusses Edward Ellerker Williams, a lieutenant in the British Army in India and later a member of the Shelley/Byron circle. His journal records events of March 1-12, 1814, including a visit to the ancient ruins, mosques, and harems of Delhi; Williams died on July 8, 1822, and Edward John Trelawny continued the notebook, which "provides significant information concerning the travel narrative as a Romantic genre" (174).
Mielsch, Hans-Ulrich. Sommer 1816: Lord Byron und die Shelleys am Genfer See. Zurich: NZZ, 1998.
Milford, Lauri K. "Putting Out the Fire: Visions of Science in Shelley's Prometheus Unbound and Triumph of Life." M.A. thesis, U of Wyoming, 1998.
O'Neill, Michael. "Percy Bysshe Shelley, Prometheus Unbound." In A Companion to
Romanticism, ed. Duncan Wu (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998), 259-68.
Payling, Catherine. "Report from Rome." KSR 12 (1998): xi.
The Internet site for Keats-Shelley Memorial House is http://www.demon.co.uk/heritage/Keats.House.Rome/Visitors. "Visitors to the site can see the interior of the museum, read about the lives and works of the poets, and the history of the Association itself. The site also carries information about the activities of the Association in London and Rome."
Peterfreund, Stuart. "Two Romantic Poets and Two Romantic Scientists 'on' Mont Blanc." WC 29.3 (Summer 1998): 152-61.
Pfau, Thomas, and
Robert F. Gleckner, eds. Lessons of Romanticism: A Critical Companion. Durham, N.C.: Duke UP, 1998.
Essays from the 1994 conference on "The Political and Aesthetic Education of Romanticism" at Duke University, which was organized by the editors. An introduction by Thomas Pfau on historicism, irony, and the lessons of Romanticism, with sections entitled "Varieties of Bildung in European Romanticism and Beyond," "Images and Institutions of Cultural Literacy in Romanticism," and "Gender, Sexuality, and the (Un)Romantic Canon." Essays relevant for this bibliography include those by David S. Ferris, "Keats and the Aesthetics of Critical Knowledge; or, The Ideology of Studying Romanticism at the Present Time" (103-25), mainly a reflection on McGann's essay on Keats; Joel Faflak's "Romantic Psychoanalysis: Keats, Identity, and (The Fall of) Hyperion" (304-27); Steven Bruhm's "Reforming Byron's Narcissism" (429-47); and Greg Kucich's "'This Horrid Theatre of Human Sufferings': Gendering the Stages of History in Catharine Macaulay and Percy Bysshe Shelley" (448-66).
Plotnitsky, Arkady. "A Dancing Arch: Formalization and Singularity in Kleist, Shelley, and De Man." ERR 9.2 (Spring 1998): 161-76.
Robinson, Roger. "The Origins and Composition of James Beattie's Minstrel." Romanticism 4.2 (1998): 224-41.
Robinson explores how Beattie came to write a work that was so influential on Cowper, Burns, Bowles, Rogers, Wordsworth, Byron, Shelley, Clare, Keats, and Tennyson.
Rogers, Jane Susan. "Ekphrasis in Robert Browning's Men and Women." Ph.D. diss., U of Alabama, 1998, DAI, 59-04A (1998): 1180, 222 pages.
Browning's 1855 volume, Men and Women, represents the culmination of his immersion in the painting, sculpture, and architecture of Italy, as well as the relationship between the verbal and visual arts. Browning's "Essay on Shelley" (1851) demonstrates the degree to which Browning's poetic theories were molded by ekphrasis, the "effort to import visual elements into the verbal medium." Browning's "Old Pictures in Florence," "Fra Lippo Lippi," and "Andrea del Sarto" show the poet using historical painters to explore their psyches and the relationship between artists and their creations.
Rosen, Jeff. "Cameron's Photographic Double Takes." In Orientalism
Transposed: The Impact of the Colonies on British Culture, ed. Julie F. Codell and Dianne Sachko Macleod (Hangs, Eng.; Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate, 1998), 158-86.
Rosen notes how Cameron's Beatrice is modeled on the Beatrice Cenci created by Percy Shelley, who plots her father's murder after having been abused by him.
Ross, Catherine Elizabeth. "Rivals in the Public Sphere: Humphry Davy and Romantic Poets." Ph.D. diss., U of Texas at Austin, 1998, DAI, 59-06A (1998): 2040.
The Romantic era's "invention of modern science" was as important culturally as the French Revolution, the Napoleonic wars, and Industrialization. By tracing the circle of the popular chemical philosopher Humphry Davy, Ross shows how Romantic poets were "sibling rivals" of Regency scientists;
examining their works in relation to one another opens Romantic literary texts to richer and more precise readings. "This project revises Habermas's theory of the public sphere to include the surprisingly democratic discourse and practice of natural philosophy and traces the professionalization of science and letters in the years from 1790 to 1807." Ross examines Humphry Davy's public lectures, poetry, notebooks, and letters; Percy Shelley's Defence of Poetry; and Coleridge's letters and Biographia Literaria, as well as both "Prefaces" to Lyrical Ballads. Ross views Wordsworth's career as a man of letters in contradistinction to Davy's: Wordsworth was "trying to find or make a place in his society as a Poet and Man of Letters in competition with the equally passionate, prophetic, and philanthropic Davy."
The Visual and Verbal Sketch in British Romanticism. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1998.
Sha's fifth chapter, "Resisting Monumentality: Wordsworth, Byron, and the Poetic Sketch," argues that Byron's Childe Harold's Pilgrimage and Wordsworth's Descriptive Sketches (1793) use the poetic
sketch to challenge their own desire for monumentality (i.e. for the building of monuments to oneself and others). Sha draws on De Man's essay on Shelley's The Triumph of Life to discuss defacement in literature. Where women were prevented from displaying their intellectual gifts, male poets tried to make their works more self-reflexive, ironic, and canonical by showing their awareness of the limitations of seeking to canonize oneself. "Given Byron's penchant for revision (he was admittedly less obsessive about revision than Wordsworth) and reorganization as well as the complicated manuscript and textual histories of the poem, he at times found in the sketch a more appropriate and enabling metaphor for writing than the monument" (186). Discusses Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (179-93) as a series of sketches (179): "the analogy of writing to sketching . . . accounts for Byron's self-conscious visual presentation of this poem. This perspective also allows us to see how Byron envisaged the provisionality of the sketch as an important counter to monumentality" (180); brief discussion of Shelley's "Ozymandias" (167) juxtaposed with Wordsworth's "This Column Intended by Bonaparte for a Triumphal Edifice in Milan, Now Lying by the Wayside in the Simplon Pass" (1820) and Descriptive Sketches (1793).
Silver, James Perry. "History and the Form of the Dream Vision: Shelley's Poetic Confrontations with Material Reality (Percy Bysshe Shelley, England, Romanticism)." Ph.D. diss., Tulane U, 1998, DAI, 59-09A (1998): 3470, 265 pages.
This genre study reads poems of Shelley as examples of a "kind of narrative that dramatizes visionary insight but places the experience in the context of a paradoxical fixation on materiality." Queen Mab, Laon and Cythna, and The Triumph of Life are pseudo-historical discourses, adaptations of the dream vision which Shelley used to resolve conflicts between his poetic and political ambitions. Shelley's visionary narratives engage the same aesthetic dilemmas as Scott's historical novels; Shelley is "credited with the rise of realism as a dominant mode of expression in nineteenth-century literature."
Closet Performances: Political Exhibition and Prohibition in the Dramas of Byron and Shelley. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1998.
This study treats Manfred, Sardanapalus, Prometheus Unbound, Marino Faliero, Hellas, and other plays by Byron and Shelley "as a species of political discourse" (205) and questions the extent to which they could create the taste by which they would be enjoyed. Simpson considers how Byron's and Shelley's dramas were received by the press, and draws on the work of Foucault, Sedgwick, and other theorists to consider the importance of historicism, homoeroticism, and the closet as metaphors for their efforts at political reform.
Smith, Jessica. "Tyrannical Monuments and Discursive Ruins: The Dialogic Landscape of Shelley's Queen Mab." KSJ 47 (1998): 108-41.
Smith, Matthew Joseph. "The Manchester Massacre of 1819 and Chartist March of 1842: The Emergenc(y) of Working Class Identity, Representation, and History." Ph.D. diss., Purdue U, 1997, DAI, 58:12 (1998): 4672.
Matthew Smith follows the well-worn path of "new" historicism in this dissertation, embracing "the developing trend that aims to broaden the field of literary studies by applying literary analysis to historical narratives." He "demonstrates the ideological conflict concerning working-class agency among the working class, middle class, and aristocracy" that corresponded with the industrial revolution. The first chapter discusses the methodology of linking history and literature. The second discusses the Manchester Massacre as an event that "legitimated working-class concerns in England." The third chapter considers Shelley's "Mask of Anarchy." The poem "enacts a paternalistic response to working-class concerns in which Shelley embraces and creates a nostalgic version of harmonious class relations." The fourth chapter moves from Peterloo to the Chartist movement, discussing Chartism as "a moment of working-class resistance to the power of the middle class following the Reform Bill of 1832." Chartists offered "a working-class alternative to middle-class ideology." Chapter 5 discusses Disraeli's "(de)construction of a history in Sybil that explains England's political and economic crisis of the 1840s by attributing the country's decline to the rise of the middle class." In an epilogue, the author considers the value of "new" historicism within the discipline of literary studies.
Sng, Zachary. "The Construction of Lyric Subjectivity in Shelley's 'Ozymandias.'" SIR 37:2 (Summer 1998): 217-34.
Sng makes use of Northrop Frye's "Approaching the Lyric," Shelley's essay "On Life," and Martin Buber's I and Thou to explain "the illocutionary failure of Ozymandias' inscription and the physical destruction of his statue" as "doubles of each other" (231). "The authorial veracity of the lyric 'I' holds itself apart but yet remains grounded in the linguistic failure of Ozymandias as a speaking subject" (232).
Stauffer, Andrew M. "Fits of Rage: Anger and Romantic Poetry (William Blake, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Lord Byron)." Ph.D. diss., U of Virginia, 1998, DAI, 59-02A (1998): 0498, 232 pages.
"This dissertation attends to the generic transformations of anger between Augustan satire and Victorian dramatic monologue." It focuses on the "dialogue between anger and truth as Blake, Shelley, and Byron imagined it." Anger "encourages the transgression of forms and boundaries, and the poets who yield to it produce an art marked by generic experimentation, as they search for ways to incarnate the disembodied voice, and convey the alienated perspective, of anger." Explores Blake's use of apocalyptic spectacle, Shelley's use of the masque, and Byron's use of the curse. "Blake, Shelley, and Byron write themselves towards the poetic forms of the Victorians and Moderns by way of anger."
Steinman, Lisa M. Masters of Repetition: Poetry, Culture, and Work in Thomson, Wordsworth, Shelley, and Emerson. New York: St. Martin's P, 1998.
This book traces whether poetry has a social or political role, and what that role might be (3); the term "repetition" is borrowed from Wallace Stevens' "Notes to a Supreme Fiction": the poet "is not the exceptional . . . /But he that of repetition is most master" (7). Steinman traces the influence of Thomson's career on Wordsworth, discussing Wordsworth's writings from 1790 to 1815, particularly The Ruined Cottage and The Excursion. Her aim is to show a "game of literary 'gossip,'" in which Thomson's echoes of Milton and the classics are reechoed by Wordsworth, who in turn sets the terms of a dialogue for Shelley and Emerson. "'The anxiety of influence' I explore thus is not primarily a Bloomian anxiety about individual predecessors but rather an anxiety occasioned by cultural changes" (2). Thomson aligns poetic power with political power, explicitly in The Seasons and The Castle of Indolence in his praises of British military might. "As The Ruined Cottage replaces Thomson's dreaming swain with Wordsworth's projected poet-storyteller, so poems from Shelley's Alastor volume address and revise Wordsworth's work in The Excursion (repeating Wordsworth's own revisions of The Ruined Cottage and of Thomson)" (6). Shelley's readings of Gothic novels (and of their readership) also informed his theories on the power of lyric as opposed to "the power of narrative" (6). Emerson cited "Wordsworth's poetry as a model of literary seductiveness" (3). Steinman discusses the view of Emerson as "a sort of Yankee Shelley" (Atlantic Monthly, 1897), and considers the use of an unreliable narrator and the theme of storytelling in Alastor (94-111, 129-33), while including a discussion of the essay "On Life," The Triumph of Life, and The Defence of Poetry (127-29).
Touma, Mireille G. "Shelley and His Contemporary Readers." M.A. thesis, Montclair State U, 1998.
Vicario, Michael III. "Virgil's Tenth Eclogue and Shelley's Adonais." KSJ 47 (1998): 161-83.
Romantic Circles - Home / Scholarly Resources / Current Bibliography: Keats-Shelley Journal / Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1998