2899. Robert Southey to William Wilberforce, 15 January 1817*
Keswick. 15 Jany. 1817
My dear Sir
I beg pardon for having forgotten your enquiry respecting my friend Kosters address. It is simply Pernambuco, – but the Brazil packet goes to the Rio; & there is no communication with Pernambuco except by merchant ships. The best plan therefore will be to consign your packet to the care of his father John Theodore Koster, Liverpool. 
This part of the country scarcely feels the existing distress, – Westmoreland (being wholly an agricultural country) not at all. The only xxx We have some cotton mills here, poisoning the health & morals of the people, – & some coarse weaving which is not so mischievous, because only men are employed in it. These suffer something, but not much; – a collection was made several weeks ago; – the amount must have been very trifling, – but nothing more has been called for, & no complaints are heard. Our population is in a deplorable state both as to law & gospel; – the magistrates careless to the last degree & the Vicar who is one of them, has the comprehensive sin of omission to answer for.  The next generation I trust will see fewer of these marrying & christening machines. The morals of the people here have dreadfully worsened during his long slumbers; – even within my remembrance there has been a great change.
I sincerely hope some measures will be taken for checking the incendiary journals, as soon as Parliament meets. If they are suffered to proceed with impunity a Bellum Servile  must be the result. The one measure which appears to me indispensible is that transportation be made the punishment for seditious lit writings: fine & imprisonment are absurdly inade inappropriate
Believe me my dear Sir
very truly & respectfully yours
* MS: Berg Collection, New York
Public Library. ALS; 2p.
Previously published: R. I. Wilberforce and S. Wilberforce, The Life of William Wilberforce, 5 vols (London, 1838), IV, p. 391 [in part; undated]. BACK
 Southey had interested Wilberforce in Koster’s proposal to translate into Portuguese, and thereby aid the abolition of slavery campaign in Brazil, Thomas Clarkson’s History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave–Trade by the British Parliament (1808). BACK