Biographies

These pages provide information about contemporaries to whom Southey was connected, in particular, correspondents, family and friends.

Information about minor acquaintances and about contemporaries whom Southey did not meet or correspond with can be found in the editorial notes to individual letters.

DNB indicates that further information can be found in the new Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

Hist P indicates that further information can be found in The History of Parliament.


Displaying 1 - 454 of 454 people
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T V W
DNB, Hist P

The Speaker of the House of Commons 1802–1817. He was responsible for the legislation that led to the first census in 1801. Through their mutual interest in statistics, he became Rickman’s patron and was responsible for appointing Rickman Secretary to The Speaker in 1802. Southey called him ‘Emperor of the Franks’ because he was able to take advantage, through Rickman, of Abbot’s privilege of franking mail for free.

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Aragonese lawyer and antiquarian. He served as secretary to the Cortes (1809) and then worked as secretary at the Spanish embassy in London. Whilst there he met Blanco White and Southey. On his return to Spain, he supplied Southey with material for the Edinburgh Annual Register and his History of the Peninsular War (1823–1832). Southey feared that he might have been imprisoned after the restoration of the Spanish monarchy in 1813–14, but Abella remained in favour until about 1819, when he was exiled. Until this date he was Southey’s main source of news and documents from Spain.

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DNB, Hist P

Philanthropist and independently minded conservative MP for Devonshire 1812–1818, 1820–1831 and North Devon 1837–1857. He was a devoted supporter of the Church of England and friendly with Wilberforce. Southey first met him in London in 1817 and admired Acland’s character and (usually) his political conduct.

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DNB

Solicitor, antiquary, Portuguese scholar and leading figure in the intellectual life of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. He corresponded with Southey over their shared interest in Portuguese literature and translation. His Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Luis de Camoens (1820) was greatly admired by Southey.

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A friend of Southey’s during his time at Westminster School. His family were from Innishannon, Co. Cork; in later life he was a barrister and civil servant.

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DNB

Son of John Aikin and nephew of Anna Letitia Barbauld. A Unitarian intellectual, writer and lecturer on chemistry and mineralogy and from 1803–1808 the editor of the Annual Review, the journal for which Southey wrote before he became a regular contributor to the Quarterly Review.

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DNB

Physician, author and brother of Anna Letitia Barbauld. In the mid-1790s, Southey and Aikin moved in the same circles in London. Aikin was a regular contributor to periodicals and his review of Joan of Arc appeared in the Analytical Review in 1796. In 1797 Aikin and his son, Arthur Aikin, translated the first volume of Necker’s On the French Revolution. Southey translated the second. In the mid-1790s, Southey (using a variety of pseudonyms) corresponded with Aikin in the latter’s capacity as editor of the Monthly Magazine. In 1807 Southey contributed articles to the new periodical Aikin edited: The Athenæum: a Magazine of Literary and Miscellaneous Information. Southey also contributed to Aikin’s General Biography (1799–1813).

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Surgeon and journalist. Educated at Christ’s Hospital (where he was a contemporary of Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Charles Lamb) and University College, Oxford (BA 1796, MA 1803, MB and MD 1803). He first met Southey, who was flirting with a career in medicine, at the Anatomy School in Oxford in early 1794. They became firm friends, Southey later describing how in 1794 Allen had been his ‘bosom-companion’ and had ‘rendered many hours delightful which would otherwise have passed in the destructive daydreams of solitude’. Allen wrote poetry and, in Oxford in June 1794, introduced Southey to Coleridge. In 1794–1795, Allen was possibly a convert to Pantisocracy. In 1796, he enrolled at the Westminster Hospital and married a wealthy widow, Catherine, daughter of Nathaniel Forster (1726–1790; DNB). She died within a year. In 1797, with the encouragement of Anthony Carlisle, he became deputy surgeon with England’s Second Royals, then stationed in Portugal. He was back in Britain by 1802 and from 1803 until his death worked as a journalist, writing for (according to Charles Lamb) the London newspapers the Oracle, True Briton, Star and Traveller.

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DNB

American painter and poet. During his time in Rome in 1805–1808 he formed a close friendship with Coleridge, and the two greatly influenced each others’ ideas about the fine arts. Allston lived in England 1811–1818 and gained some renown for his The Dead Man Restored to Life by Touching the Bones of the Prophet Elisha (1811–1814). Southey met him in 1813 and shared Coleridge’s admiration for Allston’s works.

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DNB

Lawyer and antiquary, who had been private secretary to William Windham (1750–1819; DNB), 1806–1810. He sent Southey papers relating to the campaign in Spain and Portugal.

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DNB

Cartographer of Soho Square, London, renowned for his 1790 large chart of the world. Among Arrowsmith’s other productions were A Map Exhibiting All the New Discoveries in the Interior Parts of North America (1795, rev. 1801, 1802, 1804), Chart of the South Pacific (1798) and A New Map of Africa (1802). Southey employed him to make an accurate map of South America for the first volume of his History of Brazil and suggested several books as sources for information about geographical locations. In the end, it was the second volume of Southey’s history, published in 1817, which contained Arrowsmith’s Map of Brazil and Paraguay with the Adjoining Countries.

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In 1820–1821, Atkins wrote (anonymously) to Southey about the latter’s proposed ‘Life of George Fox and the Rise and Progress of Quakerism’. Southey replied, but Atkins died before the letter reached him; see New Letters of Robert Southey, ed. Kenneth Curry, 2 vols (New York and London, 1965), II, p. 222, n. 1, which contains the only definite information about Atkins.

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Daughter of Thomas Holmes (1751–1827), a wealthy East India merchant, who changed his name to Hunter on inheriting the Gobions estate in Hertfordshire in 1802 from his wife’s grandfather. The same year, Ann Holmes eloped, aged sixteen, with Hugh Doherty, an impecunious thirty-year-old Irishman and officer in the Light Dragoons. Their marriage soon broke down, and Doherty published his account of events in The Discovery (1807). This revealed how, in an attempt to prevent the elopement, Ann had been confined by her parents in a ‘madhouse’, from which he had helped her escape. After her separation from her husband, Ann Doherty (as she was then known) published a number of novels, including Ronaldsha (1808), The Castles of Wolfnorth and Mont Eagle (1812) and The Knight of the Glen (1815). Her personal life remained complex. In 1811 Hugh Doherty successfully sued the architect Philip William Wyatt (d. 1835) for ‘criminal conversation’ with his wife. Her relationship with Wyatt did not last and by 1818 she was referring to herself as Ann Attersoll, probably because she was living with John Attersoll (c. 1784–1822), a wealthy merchant, banker and MP for Wootton Bassett 1812–1813. At this time she corresponded with Southey, sending him a copy of her Peter the Cruel King of Castile and Leon: An Historical Play in Five Acts (1818). By 1820 (possibly earlier) she was living in France and had dropped the name of Attersoll and adopted that of Madame St Anne Holmes (much to Southey’s confusion). A French translation of Roderick, the Last of the Goths, published in 1821 by Pierre Hippolyte Amillet de Sagrie (1785–1830), was dedicated to her. She remained in France and was later known by the surname de la Pigueliere.

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Eldest surviving son of the solicitor, John Awdry (1766–1844), and Jane, née Bigg-Wither (1770–1845), sister of Herbert Hill’s wife, Catherine. Awdry was educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford, graduating with a First in 1816. He was elected a Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, at the same time as Hartley Coleridge in April 1819. He later qualified as a barrister, was knighted in 1830 and rose to the Supreme Court of Judicature in Bombay 1839–1842. Southey first met Awdry in 1817 when he stayed at the Awdry family’s Swiss holiday home on his continental tour.

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DNB

Scottish dramatist, friend of the Aikins and of Scott. Southey, an occasional acquaintance and correspondent, greatly admired her A Series of Plays: In which it is Attempted to Delineate the Stronger Passions of the Mind.

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Printer, publisher and bookseller, in partnership with Charles Cradock from 1810. He founded the London Magazine in 1820–1821 and commissioned Southey to produce an edition of The Works of William Cowper (1835–1837). Baldwin’s firm went bankrupt and this involved Southey in an extensive correspondence before he received part of the payment he was promised. Baldwin spent the rest of his life as stock-keeper of the Stationers’ Company.

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DNB

Printer and schoolfriend of Walter Scott. He printed Southey’s Madoc (1805) and many of his subsequent poems. Ballantyne’s printing business, in which Scott had a secret share, became one of the most highly regarded and profitable of the first decade of the nineteenth century. In 1809 Southey agreed to provide historical material for the Edinburgh Annual Register, issued by the related publishing firm in which Ballantyne, Scott and Ballantyne’s younger brother John were partners. Southey wrote the historical section of the Register between 1810–1813, though as the Register was issued two years in arrears, this covered the period 1808–1811. Southey was persuaded to invest his first year’s salary of £209 in the Register and become a shareholder in the concern. However, the Register was not a financial success and helped draw the Ballantynes’ partnership into increasing difficulties. Southey was not paid for his work on the volume published in 1813 and ceased writing for the Register at the end of that year. He also lost his investment. As a result, Southey became increasingly hostile to Ballantyne, describing him as shifty and incompetent (a ‘sad shuffler’). Although the Register’s failure owed much to its attempt to compete in an already crowded marketplace, Southey himself played a role. His contributions often massively exceeded the length allocated to them, thus delaying the appearance and increasing the cost to the publisher of the periodical. In 1811 Ballantyne’s concern about the impact of this on the Register’s potential sales led him to demand that Southey publish an apology at the front of that year’s issue.

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The younger brother of James, and a partner in the publishing firm with him and Scott.

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DNB

Poet, essayist and children’s author, sister of John Aikin and aunt of Arthur Aikin, Southey’s editor at the Annual Review. She married the Revd Rochemont Barbauld (1749–1808) on 26 May 1774. Barbauld and Southey met in 1797 and had many acquaintances in common, including George Dyer, William Godwin and Joseph Johnson. Barbauld was publicly linked with the literary and scientific experimentalism of Southey’s circle, and featured in the Anti-Jacobin satire ‘The Pneumatic Revellers’ (1800). She and Southey both contributed to the Monthly Magazine and the Annual Review and occasionally socialised, in particular during Southey’s time in London in 1801–1802. However, his attitude to her was ambivalent. He agreed with her advice to Coleridge (whom Barbauld admired and promoted) not to lose himself in ‘the maze of metaphysic lore’, but condemned the verses in which she articulated this as ‘trite’. He also punned on her surname, calling her ‘Bare-bald’ because he attributed to her a hostile review of Charles Lamb’s play John Woodvil; a Tragedy (1802) in the Annual Review for 1802, 1 (1803), 688–692.

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DNB

Writer. The third son of Joseph Foster Barham, he was educated at St John’s College, Cambridge, but left without taking a degree. His marriage to Mary Ann Morton in 1790 produced six children. He was associated with the mercantile house of Plummer & Co, but retired to the West of England in 1806 due to ill health, settling at Leskinnick, near Penzance. His writings, mainly on theology and musical subjects, included: Letter from a Trinitarian to a Unitarian (1811), and Musical Meditations, Consisting of Original Compositions, Vocal and Instrumental (1811, 2nd set 1815). He composed sacred poems and dramas, including Abdallah, or, The Arabian Martyr (1820), and, in 1829, produced an English version of Pergolesi’s Stabat Mater. Barham admired Southey and corresponded with him, sending a copy of his Selection from Milton’s Hymn on the Nativity: Set of Music, and Dedicated to Robert Southey, Esq., Poet Laureate (1818).

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Author, painter and close friend of Robert Southey. Born in Congreve, Staffordshire, daughter of Thomas Barker, an ironmaster, and Mary Homfray. Author of A Welsh Story (1798), she moved in literary circles. She met Southey in Portugal in 1800 and subsequently visited the Southeys frequently in Bristol, London and Keswick. She was godmother to Southey’s first child, Margaret (d. 1803). Southey had a high opinion of Mary Barker’s talents and proposed that she should illustrate Madoc (1805). She appears as the ‘Bhow Begum’ in The Doctor (1834–1847). Mary Barker lived at Greta Lodge in Keswick, next to Greta Hall, between 1812 and 1817, becoming a close friend of the Coleridges and Wordsworths, as well as the Southeys, and teaching music to the girls of the families. Financial difficulties forced her to move to Boulogne in 1819 and she never returned to England. Southey met her for the last time on his trip to France in 1825. In 1830 she married a Mr Slade, who was much younger than her and thought to be a ‘mere adventurer’ by her Keswick friends.

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Clergyman. A friend of Southey’s during his time at Westminster School and Oxford. In later life, Barnes held several livings in Devonshire.

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Publisher, in partnership with J. Harris. In 1813 they suggested Southey should take up the continuation of John Campbell’s (1708–1775; DNB), Lives of the Admirals and Other Eminent British Seamen (1742–1744). Southey immediately declined the offer on the grounds of his inadequate knowledge of the subject.

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DNB

Quaker poet. He was a clerk in Alexanders’ Bank in Woodbridge, Suffolk, and disliked travelling, but carried on an extensive correspondence with a number of men of letters, including Southey and Lamb. Barton asked for Southey’s help with some of his literary projects, but the two met only once, in 1824. His half-brother, the economist John Barton (1789–1852; DNB), married Ann Woodruffe Smith (d. 1822), the daughter of Grosvenor Bedford’s friend, Thomas Woodruffe Smith.

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DNB

Art patron, landscape painter, and coal mine owner. He was a friend and patron of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey, Constable and Scott, inviting them to his estate at Coleorton, Leicestershire. Sir George was an enthusiastic amateur painter and owner of many Italian landscapes. Southey first met Beaumont in the Lakes in 1803 and corresponded with him and his wife.

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Married Sir George Beaumont on 6 May 1778 and accompanied him on his tours of Europe, England and Wales. She was on friendly terms with Southey and her husband’s other protégés.

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Daughter of the Irish educational writer and engineer, Richard Lovell Edgeworth (1744–1817; DNB) and younger sister of the novelist, Maria Edgeworth (1768–1849; DNB). In April 1794 she married Thomas Beddoes, an acquaintance of her father’s. The marriage produced two sons (including the poet, Thomas Lovell Beddoes (1803–1849; DNB)) and two daughters, but proved unhappy.

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DNB

Chemist and physician. Born at Shifnal, Shropshire, son of Richard Beddoes and Ann Whitehall. Educated at Bridgnorth Grammar School, by private tutor, and at Pembroke College, Oxford (matric. 1776, BA 1779, MB and MD 1786), and Edinburgh. Reader in Chemistry at Oxford from 1788. In the early 1790s, a growing reputation as a radical led to his surveillance by Home Office spies and failure to gain the Regius Chair in Chemistry. He left Oxford for Bristol in 1793 and married Anna Edgeworth, sister of the novelist Maria (1768–1849; DNB), in the following year. Beddoes was involved in the political protest movements of the mid-1790s and possibly first met Southey in 1795, during the latter’s immersion in Bristol politics. In 1799, Beddoes opened the Pneumatic Institute (from 1802 the Preventive Medical Institution for the Sick and Drooping Poor) in Hotwells, Bristol. Southey participated in the experiments with gases carried out by Beddoes and Humphry Davy, and recorded in Notice of Some Observations Made at the Medical Pneumatic Institution (1799). Beddoes was a prolific writer on medical, political and educational reform. He was also a poet: author of Alexander’s Expedition (1792) and a contributor to Southey’s Annual Anthology (1799). Southey respected Beddoes’s medical judgment, consulting him on more than one occasion. In 1809 he recorded that ‘From Beddoes I hoped for more good to the human race than from any other individual’. However, disagreements about poetry ensured that their personal relationship was not warm. Southey dismissed Beddoes as a ‘hypercritic of the Darwin school’ and was furious when his ‘Domiciliary Verses’ (a parody of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth and Southey) found its way into the first volume of the Annual Anthology. Joseph Cottle, who was responsible for the poem’s inclusion, was ordered by Southey not to solicit any further contributions from Beddoes.

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The Bedford family lived at Westminster and Brixton. The household consisted of the parents, Charles (c. 1742–1814) and Mary Bedford, three sons (Grosvenor, Horace and Harry) and a cousin, Mary Page. Southey was on good terms with the entire family. He made use of the library in their Westminster home and wrote the first draft of Joan of Arc during an extended stay at their house in Brixton in summer 1793. Southey corresponded with Grosvenor and Horace.

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Civil servant and miscellaneous writer. The son of Charles Bedford (Deputy Usher of the Exchequer, as Horace Walpole’s substitute). Educated at Westminster School (adm. 1784), but did not attend university. Assistant clerk in the Exchequer Office, 1792–1803; clerk of the cash book, 1803–1806; clerk of the registers and issues, 1806–1822; chief clerk in the auditor’s office, 1822–1834. Admitted to Gray’s Inn, 26 January 1797. Bedford did not marry, despite regularly seeking Southey’s advice on his love affairs. Bedford and Southey met at Westminster School and their friendship endured for the remainder of their lives. Bedford had literary inclinations. He was involved in the ill-fated Flagellant (1792), contributed poems to the Monthly Magazine (1797) and the first volume of the Annual Anthology (1799), and privately published his translation of Musaeus, The Loves of Hero and Leander (1797). He worked with Southey on Specimens of the Later English Poets (1807) and contributed an unsigned notice of Southey’s Roderick, the Last of the Goths (1814) to the Quarterly Review. His other publications included A Letter to the Right Hon. William Pitt on his Political Experiments (1804, anonymous) and a Memoir of Barré Charles Roberts (1814).

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The younger brother of Grosvenor and Horace Bedford.

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Civil servant and miscellaneous writer. The younger brother of Grosvenor Charles Bedford and named after his father’s patron. He was educated at Westminster School (adm. 1784), where his nickname was ‘the Doctor’ or ‘Dr. Johnson’. He did not attend university and later held a post at the British Museum. Like his older brother, he did not marry. Southey’s friendship with Horace began at school and their correspondence (though occasionally intermittent) lasted until at least 1797. Southey’s relationship with Horace was slightly different from that with Grosvenor Charles Bedford. He treated Horace as a younger brother: encouraging him and worrying about his tendency to laziness. He also fostered the younger man’s literary ambitions. Horace’s poems appeared in the Monthly Magazine (1797) and the Annual Anthology (1799).

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DNB

Scottish clergyman, the founder and tireless advocate of the ‘Madras’ system of schooling. When a chaplain in India, Bell introduced to the Madras Orphan Asylum the ‘monitorial’ system, wherein brighter children were charged with supervising groups of slower children, and all were motivated by a graduated scale of rewards and punishments. Returning to Britain, Bell promoted the system in a series of publications and attempted to have it instituted by a board of education controlled by the Church of England. From 1807 he engaged in a public dispute with the supporters of Joseph Lancaster, who promoted a version of his system outside Church control. Southey, at Bell’s request, supported his system in an 1811 Quarterly Review article and book, The Origin, Nature and Object of the New System of Education (1812). By 1832, Bell’s National Society for the Education of the Poor in the Principles of the Christian Church was responsible for over 12000 schools in Britain and the empire. Bell continued to badger Southey for public support; after his death Southey, as his literary executor, worked on his biography. Completed by Caroline Bowles and Charles Cuthbert Southey, this was published in 1844 as The Life of the Rev. Andrew Bell.

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DNB

Bookseller and antiquary. He was born and lived in Newcastle, where from 1803-1817 he ran a booksellers shop on Quayside. He was the founder of a short-lived numismatic society. In 1813 he was involved in the founding of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle Upon Tyne, serving as its Treasurer until his bankruptcy. Southey corresponded with him in 1814 about Morris dancing.

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Prominent English merchant in Lisbon, admitted to the British Factory in 1774. Southey came to know him well during his visit to Portugal in 1800–1801. He appreciated Bell’s wide knowledge of the country and benefitted from his connections to Portuguese intellectual life. Bell’s special interest was numismatics.

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DNB

Writer and painter of miniatures. Her poetry was admired by Coleridge, who penned the complimentary ‘To Matilda Betham, from a Stranger’. Betham published Elegies (1797) and Poems (1808); Southey advised her about her poetry and sat to her for his portrait in 1808, as Coleridge also did. In 1809 Betham visited Greta Hall and painted Southey’s wife and children. Owing to the unconventionality of her conduct Betham’s family confined her in an asylum in 1819. Meeting her the following year, Southey declared her ‘perfectly sane in her conversation and manner, tho she has written me the maddest letters I ever saw’.

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Neighbour and friend. Biddlecombe met Southey in summer 1797 when the latter moved to the village of Burton in Hampshire. Southey described him as ‘rich enough to buy books, and very friendly, all that a neighbour should be’. Biddlecombe married in 1798, but his wife died in childbirth in March 1799, leaving him with an infant daughter. During Southey’s numerous absences, Biddlecombe appears to have looked after the cottage at Burton and when it was finally given up in 1802 arranged for a sale of part of the furniture and stored some of Southey’s possessions, including books, for a number of years. During his 1817 visit to France, Southey ran into Biddlecombe, whom he had not seen for several years, and his invalid daughter, describing the latter as ‘short and plethoric, with a countenance of prepossessing good nature’.

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Printer and stationer in Bristol. He printed books, including works by Beddoes, Coleridge, Estlin and Southey, for congeries of publishers in London and the South-West of England. In the mid-late 1790s, he entered into a business partnership with Joseph Cottle, printing the Bristol edition of Coleridge and Wordsworth’s Lyrical Ballads (1798), and the revised editions of 1800 and 1802.

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The elder son of John Bill (d. 1847), a surgeon to the Manchester Infirmary who inherited the Farley estate, near Alton, Staffordshire. Robert Bill was educated at Macclesfield School (now the King’s School, Macclesfield), whose headmaster was Dr David Davies (1755–1828). Bill matriculated at Oriel College, Oxford, in 1807 graduating BA 1810 and MA 1814. He pursued a career as a barrister. In 1820 he married Louisa Dauncey, the daughter of Philip Dauncey K.C. (d. 1819) and his wife Marie (Mary) (b. 1769), and the granddaughter of Mrs Dolignon who had acted in loco parentis during Southey’s time at Westminster School. Bill fathered two daughters and died in Rochester, Kent, on 12 October 1823. As a schoolboy in May 1806, Bill wrote to Southey, expressing his enthusiasm for his work. Bill was clearly a fan of contemporary poetry because in February of the same year he had written admiringly to Thomas Campbell. His enthusiasm persisted and in 1823 he, his wife and sister-in-law subscribed to Joanna Baillie’s A Collection of Poems, which included Southey’s ‘The Cataract of Lodore’ and ‘Lines in the Album, at Lowther Castle’. Bill’s love of poetry was shared by his relative, and namesake, the mechanic and inventor Robert Bill (1754–1827; DNB).

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DNB

Edinburgh-based publisher whose firm, William Blackwood and Sons, became the leading Scottish publisher of the 1820s and 1830s. Blackwood’s career started in the antiquarian bookselling business, but gradually moved into publishing. His appointment, in 1811, as Edinburgh agent for John Murray gave him excellent links to the English book trade and English authors. In 1817 he founded a new Tory periodical – the Edinburgh Monthly Magazine. Within six months this was refounded as Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, which rapidly emerged as a major counterpart to the Edinburgh Review. Blackwood, travelling with Murray in the latter’s coach, visited Southey in Keswick in September 1818. Although his (and Murray’s) attempts to enlist Southey as a contributor to the new magazine failed, Blackwood and Southey did correspond occasionally. The publisher was more successful with Caroline Bowles. She contributed to Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine and published her other writings with Blackwood’s firm. This connection ensured that, after Southey’s death, Bowles chose Blackwood as the publisher of two works co-authored with her late husband: The Life of the Rev. Andrew Bell (1844; also co-authored with Cuthbert Southey) and Robin Hood: A Fragment; with Other Fragments and Poems (1847).

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Secretary and Treasurer to the Whitehaven Harbour Trustees. He was well known to Wordsworth through the latter’s work as Distributor of Stamps for Westmorland.

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DNB

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, Greek scholar and clergyman. He was later Bishop of Chester, 1824–1828, and Bishop of London, 1828–1856. Southey met Blomfield in 1825 and the two men corresponded briefly.

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DNB

Brought up in Suffolk as a farmhand, Bloomfield became a shoemaker in London. His Georgic poem The Farmer’s Boy (1800) sold over 25,000 copies, and later collections Rural Tales (1802) and Wild Flowers (1806) also sold by the thousands. After 1813, owing to the bankruptcy of his publisher, Bloomfield was afflicted by poverty; Southey advised on schemes to raise money for his benefit. Bloomfield and Southey briefly corresponded in 1817.

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Schoolmaster, clergyman and lexicographer. Southey corresponded with him in 1802 concerning Thomas Chatterton (1752–1770; DNB).

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Writer. Born in Hampshire, she was the only surviving child of Charles Bowles (1737–1801), a retired Captain in the East India service, and Ann Burrard (1753–1817). The continuing decline in her family’s finances was reflected in their move from Buckland Manor, Bowles’s birthplace, to the more modest Buckland Cottage. In 1818, Bowles, fearing that she would lose her home due to the mismanagement of her guardian, wrote to Southey asking his advice about publishing her poetry with the aim of earning much-needed cash. This initiated a correspondence that developed into close friendship and literary collaboration, and culminated in marriage on 4 June 1839. Although Bowles’s finances were in the event stabilised by an annuity from a Colonel Bruce, the ‘adopted’ son of her father, she did pursue a literary career. She contributed to Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, and published poetry and prose, including Ellen Fitzarthur (1820), Solitary Hours (1826), Chapters on Churchyards (1829), The Cat’s Tail (1830), Tales of the Factories (1833) and

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Church of England clergyman and poet, whose sonnets were a major influence on Coleridge and Southey in the mid-1790s. Southey reviewed Bowles’s poem The Spirit of Discovery (1804) and later corresponded with him.

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DNB

Antiquary and topographer, co-editor of the illustrated topographical survey, in 27 volumes, The Beauties of England and Wales (1801–1818) and editor of Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain. Southey corresponded with him about Chatterton, and Britton’s book on the latter appeared in 1813.

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Daughter of the musicologist Charles Burney (1726–1814; DNB) and his first wife Esther Sleepe (d. 1762), and younger sister of the novelist Fanny Burney (1752–1840; DNB) and of Southey’s friend James Burney. She married, firstly, the physician Clement Francis (c. 1744–1792) and, secondly, the stockjobber, pamphleteer and poet Ralph Broome (1742–1805). In 1818 Broome asked Southey for a poem commemorating her younger son Ralph Broome (1801–1817). The Poet Laureate normally disliked writing to order, but felt that this was a request he could not refuse. He produced an epitaph (‘Time and the World, whose magnitude and weight’), sent to Broome in February 1818 and later inscribed on a memorial to Ralph in St Swithun’s Church, Walcot, Bath. In 1829 Broome lost her eldest son, Clement Robert Francis (1792–1829), a Fellow of Caius College, Cambridge. Southey, who had met Francis in the Lake District, produced a second epitaph, ‘Some there will be to whom, as here they read’, for a memorial to him.

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DNB, Hist P

The son of a Westmorland squire, Brougham grew up in Edinburgh and became one of the principal contributors to the Edinburgh Review. Brougham’s radical Whig opinions, expressed in the Edinburgh, provoked Scott and others into founding the Quarterly Review, for which Southey wrote scores of articles. Brougham’s politics also brought him into conflict with Southey at the Westmorland elections of 1818 and 1820, when, as a Whig candidate standing against the candidates of the Earl of Lonsdale, whom Southey and Wordsworth supported, Brougham attacked the influence in the nation of aristocrats and their placemen.

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Unmarried daughter of Wade Browne by his first wife. Southey visited the family home in Ludlow when she was a young woman and later corresponded with her.

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The second wife of Wade Browne, by whom she had one daughter, Mary (dates unknown).

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A daughter of Wade Browne by his first wife. In 1823 she married Charles Collins Crump (c. 1790–1876), Rector of Halford, Warwickshire from 1826. Southey visited the Browne family home in Ludlow when she was a young woman and later corresponded with her.

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Wealthy woollen merchant, who was Mayor of Leeds in 1791 and 1804, Justice of the Peace and Deputy Lieutenant for Yorkshire. He retired to Ludlow in 1807 and Southey came to know him in 1808 when Browne and his family spent one of several summers in the Lakes. The two continued to correspond until Browne’s death.

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French author and translator, who had served as secretary to Jérôme Bonaparte (1784–1860), when the latter was King of Westphalia (1807–1813). He produced translations of works by Byron, Sir William Jones, James Macpherson, and Shakespeare. In 1821 he translated Southey’s Roderick, the Last of the Goths (1814) into French.

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Poet, editor and bibliographer who issued neglected literary works from his private press. Brydges compiled ‘Censura literaria’, containing titles, abstracts, and opinions of old English books, with original disquisitions, articles of biography, and other literary antiquities (1805–1809). Southey, who shared his interest in English literary history, initiated a correspondence with Brydges in 1807.

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Soldier. Educated at Westminster School, where he was a friend of Southey’s, and Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1789, Bunbury presented Southey with a copy of Thomas Warton’s Poems (3rd edn, 1779). Their friendship did not last. In 1793, Bunbury tried to avoid Southey when the latter was visiting Cambridge. Southey, in turn, claimed that Bunbury’s ‘debauchery’ was the direct result of his public school education. Bunbury joined the army and died at the Cape of Good Hope. Bunbury’s father, the artist Henry William Bunbury, and his younger brother, Sir Henry Edward Bunbury, later became close friends of Southey’s and members of his circle in Keswick.

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Army officer, uncle of Southey’s schoolfriend, Charles John Bunbury, and member of Southey’s circle in the Lake District. Bunbury was Under–Secretary of State for War and the Colonies 1809–1816 and provided Southey with information for his History of the Peninsular War (1823–1832).

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Artist and caricaturist. He was the father of Southey’s schoolfriend from Westminster, Charles John Bunbury. In later life he settled in Keswick and from 1805 until his death became part of Southey’s social circle.

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A radical politician involved in the election of 1807 for the Westminster constituency. Burdett fought a duel with his fellow radical candidate James Paull (1770–1808; DNB), whose independence of party Southey applauded. Southey initially admired Burdett but became increasingly critical of him as he became more suspicious of popular radicalism.

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Writer. The son of John Burnett, a farmer, of Huntspill, Somerset. Educated at Balliol College, Oxford (matric. 1793). His varied career included time spent as a student at a dissenting academy in Manchester, pastor to a Unitarian congregation in Great Yarmouth, medical student at the University of Edinburgh, assistant to John Rickman, domestic tutor to the sons of Lord Stanhope, assistant surgeon to a militia regiment, and (in Poland) tutor to the family of Count Stanislaw Kostka Zamoyski (1775–1856), a Polish nobleman, politician and patron of arts, after which Southey referred to him as ‘the Count’. Burnett was also a professional writer, whose works included View of the Present State of Poland (1807; from essays originally published in the Monthly Magazine), Specimens of English Prose Writers (1807; a companion to George Ellis’s Specimens of the Early English Poets) and Extracts from the Prose Works of Milton (1809). Southey met Burnett at Balliol and the two became friends. Burnett was one of the originators of Pantisocracy and in true Pantisocratic spirit proposed to Martha Fricker, who turned him down. In 1795, he shared lodgings with Southey and Coleridge in Bristol. From 1797–1798, he was minister to a Unitarian congregation in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, where he also tutored Henry Herbert Southey. Burnett moved in metropolitan literary circles and was friendly with Charles Lamb and John Rickman. His relationship with Southey and Samuel Taylor Coleridge became deeply ambivalent — by 1803 he was accusing both of treating him badly. Burnett was an opium addict and his last years were probably spent in poverty. He died in the Marylebone Infirmary.

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Naval officer and writer, second son of the music historian Dr Charles Burney (1726–1814; DNB) and brother of Charles (1757–1817; DNB) and Frances (Fanny; 1752–1840; DNB). He was nicknamed the ‘Capitaneus’ by Southey. He was sent to sea at the age of 10. In 1772 he sailed in the Resolution on James Cook’s (1728–1779; DNB) second voyage to the South Seas and on his return home in 1774 acted as an interpreter for Omai, the first Tahitean to visit Britain. Burney sailed on Cook’s third voyage and witnessed the latter’s death in 1779. He rose to the rank of Captain, but a reputation for insubordination brought his active naval career to an end in 1784. In the 1790s, Burney embarked on a second career as a writer, publishing an edition of William Bligh’s (1754–1817; DNB) A Voyage to the South Sea in HMS Bounty (1792). His magnum opus was A Chronological History of the Discoveries in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean (1803–1817). Burney separated from his wife, setting up house between 1798 to 1803 with his half-sister Sarah Burney (1772–1844) in a relationship that was rumoured to be incestuous. He returned to his wife in 1803, where Southey subsequently visited him at his home in James Street, Westminster. Southey and Burney’s shared interest in the South Seas and voyages of exploration led to a long-standing exchange of information and books.

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Poet, scholar, Radnorshire landowner and Justice of the Peace. In his youth he had spent time in Russia as a member of the chevalier guard of Catherine II, the Great (1729–1796; Empress of Russia 1762–1796). He published several collections of light verse, and in 1819 sent a copy of one of these – The Banquet, in Three Cantos – to Southey.

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Leading Catholic layman, lawyer and writer, especially on legal matters. In 1791 he became the first Catholic called to the Bar since the Revolution of 1688; he was closely involved in attempts to secure Catholic Emancipation from Parliament. Southey met him in 1811 and found him ‘thoroughly amiable’. However, he replied to Southey’s Book of the Church (1824) with a defence of Catholicism, The Book of the Catholic Church (1825). This in turn provoked Southey’s Vindiciae Ecclesiae Anglicanae (1826).

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One of the ‘Ladies of Llangollen’. Butler was an Anglo-Irish woman who, despite family disapproval, in 1780 set up house with Sarah Ponsonby at Plas Newydd, on the outskirts of Llangollen, North Wales. Their relationship fascinated contemporaries and has continued to attract speculation. Although the Ladies were famed for their lifestyle of retirement, simplicity and self-improvement, they received many guests – both admirers and tourists. Southey visited in 1811.

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Clergyman and author. Only son of George and Mary Martha Butt and brother of Mary Martha Sherwood (1775–1851; DNB), author of The Fairchild Family. Educated Westminster (adm. 1788) and Christ Church, Oxford (matric. 1792, BA 1796, MA 1799). Curate of Witley, Worcestershire; Rector of Oddingley, Worcestershire from 1806 and Vicar of East Garston, Berkshire from 1806. Author of The Last Vision of Daniel (1808) and other works. His first wife was Mary Ann Congreve; his second, Jemima Hubbal. Butt was a friend of Southey’s at Westminster School and Oxford.

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The best-selling poet whom Southey accused of leading a Satanic school of writers which corrupted readers’ morality. Byron, in Italy, thought of returning to Britain to challenge Southey to a duel; instead, he satirised the Poet Laureate’s A Vision of Judgement (1821). He had earlier, however, been influenced by Southey’s Oriental romances and continued to admire Roderick Last of the Goths (1814).

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Bookseller. The son of the London bookseller Thomas Cadell (1742–1802; DNB), he took over his father’s business in 1793, working in partnership with William Davies (d. 1820; DNB).

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The eldest son of William Calvert. He became a doctor and friend of the Scottish writer John Sterling (1806–1844; DNB), and through Sterling, made the acquaintance of Thomas Carlyle (1795–1881; DNB) and John Stuart Mill (1806–1873; DNB). Calvert suffered from tuberculosis and died at Falmouth on his way to Madeira.

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Was at school with Wordsworth at Hawkshead, where he later became schoolmaster. On the death of his father, Calvert became a man of independent means, inheriting, alongside other property, the estate of Bowness on the east shore of Bassenthwaite, near Keswick. He was a member of Southey’s Lake District circle. His younger brother Raisley (1773–1795) left Wordsworth a legacy of £900.

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Clergyman. Educated at Christ Church, Oxford (BA 1792). A university friend of Southey’s, they did not keep in touch in later life. Their last meeting was at Falmouth in 1801, when Campbell was on his way to take up the living of St John’s in Antigua. Campbell was the illegitimate son of Henry Temple, 2nd Viscount Palmerston (1739–1802) and swiftly returned from Antigua to England when he received a considerable legacy at his father’s death. Southey was later dismayed to find that Campbell had become an evangelical and fallen out with the Church authorities. He served as curate of Bicton in Shropshire, Minister of the Chapel at Nailsworth, Gloucestershire and, finally, Minister of St John’s Chapel, Uxbridge.

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Contributor to the Anti-Jacobin, 1797–1798, and parodist there of Southey’s radical ballads. A Pittite in politics, Canning was Foreign Secretary 1807 until 1809, when he lost office after fighting a duel with another minister. In this capacity, he signed a treaty providing for the removal of the Portuguese court to Brazil, and sent British troops to the peninsula, though more tardily and in smaller numbers than Southey wished. The Convention of Cintra and the retreat to Corunna were setbacks in the peninsular war for which he was held partly responsible. Canning was a major influence on the politics of the Quarterly Review, sometimes in ways that Southey disliked, and he suspected Canning of preventing the Quarterly opposing Catholic Emancipation. However, the two men were on relatively friendly terms and Canning visited Southey at Keswick in 1814 before he left to be Ambassador to Portugal, 1814–1816. From 1822 to April 1827 Canning was again Foreign Secretary, and from April to August 1827, Prime Minister.

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Surgeon and anatomist. Born at Stillington, Durham, the third son of Thomas Carlisle and his first wife Barbara (d. 1768). Studied medicine in York, Durham and London, and was appointed surgeon to the Westminster Hospital in 1793. He married Martha Symmons in 1800 and in the same year was one of the founding members of the Royal College of Surgeons, serving as its president in 1829 and 1839. He moved in metropolitan literary and scientific circles, attending Mary Wollstonecraft on her death-bed in 1797. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1804, held the post of Professor of Anatomy at the Royal Academy from 1808 and later that of surgeon-extraordinary to the Prince Regent. Carlisle was knighted when George IV acceded to the throne. Carlisle and Southey met in c. 1795, probably through their mutual friend Grosvenor Charles Bedford. In c. 1798 Carlisle, Southey and John May collaborated on a scheme for a convalescent asylum to assist the poor after their discharge from hospital. Carlisle attended Southey’s mother in her last illness in 1801–1802, but after Southey settled in Keswick the two men saw much less of each other. Although Carlisle and Southey corresponded, their letters to one another seem not to have survived.

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Tory ironfounder from Leeds. He took an active interest in issues relating to the poor and in 1819 was part of a delegation sent by the Leeds Poor Law authority to inspect Robert Owen’s New Lanark mills. He later (1844) became the first chairman of the new poor law authority in Leeds. In 1819 he wrote to Southey, sending a pamphlet he had written on the condition of the poor, probably A Plain Statement, Exhibiting the Whole of What Has Been Hyperbolically Designated, The Parish Controversy (1819).

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The only child of the union of George, then Prince of Wales, and Caroline of Brunswick (1768–1821; DNB). Her parents separated at her birth and Charlotte was thereafter often used in their ongoing battles. She married Leopold of Saxe-Coburg (1790–1865) on 2 May 1816. They established their home at Claremont, near Esher, Surrey. She died in the early hours of 6 November 1817 after delivering a stillborn son and was buried at St George’s Chapel, Windsor on 19 November. Her death was the subject of national mourning and also precipitated a rush to the altar amongst her bachelor uncles in an attempt to produce a legitimate heir to the throne. In his role as Poet Laureate, Southey celebrated her marriage in The Lay of the Laureate (1816). He commemorated her demise in ‘Lines written upon the Death of the Princess Charlotte’ and ‘Funeral Song for the Princess Charlotte’, both written in late 1817, but unpublished until 1828 and 1829 respectively.

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A native of the Suffolk town of Bury St Edmunds, she married Thomas Clarkson in 1796. She shared his radicalism and became close friends with the Wordsworths, Southey, Coleridge and Crabb Robinson. Owing to her illness, she was treated by Beddoes in Bristol in 1804 and 1805; she and her husband moved south to Suffolk from the Lake District for the sake of her health in 1806.

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Campaigner for the abolition of the slave trade, and a friend of the Wordsworths, Coleridge and Southey. He moved to the Lake District in 1794 and lived in retirement at Eusemere, near Pooley Bridge, Ullswater, until 1806. Clarkson and his wife returned to her native Suffolk in 1806, and remained there until his death. He returned to the campaign against the slave trade in 1804 and wrote ceaselessly in the cause until the passing of the 1833 Act abolishing slavery in the British empire. He also wrote admiringly of the Quakers.

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A journalist whose weekly paper, the Political Register, took an anti-jacobinical line until 1804, but thereafter became progressively more radical, supporting Burdett at the Westminster election of 1807. From 1810 to 1812 he was imprisoned after being prosecuted by the government for criticising flogging in the militia. Cobbett’s political development was the exact opposite of Southey’s and Southey was a consistent critic of Cobbett.

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One of the leading publishers of the first half of the nineteenth century. After setting up in business in 1806 he became well-known for promoting popular fiction, including ‘silver fork’ society novels, naval adventures and historical novels. He also had an interest in numerous periodicals, including the New Monthly Magazine, the Literary Gazette and the Athenaeum, and gained a reputation for ‘puffing’ his own authors in their pages. In 1814 Colburn wrote to Southey, asking for biographical details and a portrait of Southey to use in the first issue of his New Monthly Magazine. Southey obliged, directing Colburn to a copy of the bust of Southey sculpted in 1813. The article and portrait appeared in the New Monthly Magazine, 1 (January–June 1814), 566–571.

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Eldest son of Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Sarah Fricker; and Southey’s nephew, nicknamed ‘Job’ for his seriousness as a child. Southey played a considerable part in Hartley’s upbringing after his father separated from his mother, leaving his children in Southey’s care at Greta Hall.

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Third son of Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Sarah Fricker; and Southey’s nephew. Anglican clergyman, writer and educationist. First Principal of St Mark’s teacher training college in Chelsea 1841–1864.

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Clergyman and schoolmaster. The elder brother of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Southey and George Coleridge were — especially later in life, when the latter acknowledged Southey’s services to Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s family — on terms of mutual respect.

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Nephew of Samuel Taylor Coleridge and later the editor of his works, including, most importantly, Table Talk (1835). Henry Nelson was a barrister, classical scholar and contributor to the Quarterly Review. He is now best known as the husband of his cousin, Sara Coleridge, whom he married in 1829.

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Nephew of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. He began his education under another uncle, George Coleridge, leading to a close friendship with John May, who was one of George Coleridge’s former pupils. After John Taylor Coleridge’s triumphant career at Oxford University, May paid for his tour of Europe in 1814 and loaned him £1,000 to set up as a barrister in 1819. His career took a long time to prosper and he undertook a great deal of journalism, including briefly editing the Quarterly Review in 1825–1826. John Taylor Coleridge finally became a judge in the Court of King’s Bench 1835–1858. Throughout his life he was a prolific writer, including a Life of Keble (1869), based on a life-long friendship with the leading High Churchmen of his day. Southey knew him well and they engaged in a substantial correspondence.

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Poet, critic, philosopher and Southey’s brother-in-law. His complex — at times passionate — four-decade relationship with Coleridge had a major impact both on Southey’s life and on his critical posterity. It began in Oxford in summer 1794 when Robert Allen introduced Southey to a visitor from Cambridge — Coleridge. It was a fateful meeting, leading to the failed scheme of Pantisocracy, literary collaboration, and — eventually — mutual disenchantment. As Southey later recorded: ‘that meeting fixed the future fortunes of us both ... Coleridge had at that time thought little of politics, in morals he was as loose ... as men at a university usually are, but he was a Unitarian. my morals were of the sternest Stoicism ... that same feeling which made me a poet kept me pure ... Our meeting was mutually serviceable, — I reformed his life, & he disposed me toward Xtianity’. It was Coleridge who induced Southey to come north and live at Greta Hall in 1803. In 1804 he left Keswick for Malta and Italy for the sake of his health, returning in 1806, after which he separated from his wife, leaving her and his daughter Sara at Greta Hall and taking his sons Hartley and Derwent to be educated at Ambleside, near the Wordsworths, with whom he lived. During 1807 and 1808 he was in London, lecturing and writing for the Courier, which duly puffed Southey’s work. In 1808 he planned, with assistance from Southey, a new journal The Friend, editing this from Grasmere from 1809 to 1810, with Southey’s help as a proofreader. In 1810 he quarrelled with Wordsworth and moved south. His last visit to the Lake District was in 1812. His relationship with Southey, though distant, was never broken and Southey continued to provide for his wife and children.

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Rourth and youngest child of Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Sarah Fricker; and Southey’s niece. Translator, writer and indefatigable editor of her father’s works. Educated, in part, by Southey, her first book, a translation of Martin Dobrizhoffer’s History of the Abipones (1822), was a project that he found for her. In 1829 she married her first cousin, Henry Nelson Coleridge.

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Nephew of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. He was educated by his uncle George Coleridge, master of the grammar school at Ottery St Mary. This was followed by a glittering career at Oxford University. He used his prestige in the University to secure the scholarship, known as a Postmastership, that allowed Hartley Coleridge to attend Merton College, Oxford. William Hart Coleridge was a clergyman who later became Bishop of Barbados and the Leeward Islands 1824–1842.

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School friend. The son of William Collins and his wife Sarah Astell of Maize Hill, Greenwich, Kent. Educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford (matric. Jan 1793). Married Jane Forman, by whom he had one son. Died c. 1806. Collins’s biography is difficult to reconstruct as Records of Old Westminsters and Alumni Oxoniensis both confuse him with his son, also named Charles Collins, and give a later date of death. A note, now in the Huntington Library, written by an eponymous descendant confirms that he died young. In 1815, Southey referred to Collins’s widow and in 1828 described him as long dead. Southey met Collins at Westminster and later described him as ‘one of my most intimate school and college friends’. However, by early 1794 their friendship had cooled and they seem to have had no contact with one another after Southey’s departure from Oxford later that year.

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Clergyman. Educated at Balliol College, Oxford (BA 1794). He eventually returned to his native Cornwall, where he became chaplain of the Truro Infirmary. He and Southey were friends for a short time in Oxford, but by mid-1794 they were permanently estranged.

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Clergyman. Son of Richard Combe of Harley St. Educated at Westminster (adm. June 1785) and Christ Church, Oxford (matric. October 1792, BA 1796, MA 1803). Admitted to Lincoln’s Inn, January 1795. Perpetual Curate of Barrington, Somerset, 1810; Rector of Earnshill and of Donyatt from 1821. Southey met Combe at Westminster and later described him as one of his ‘most intimate acquaintances’ during his years at school. Combe was known by the nicknames ‘His Majesty’ or the ‘King of Men’. Although their close friendship did not outlast Oxford, Southey did visit Combe in 1824.

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Started life in his father’s booksellers’ business, which he inherited and ran 1811–1819. However, he became better known as an industrious writer, editor and compiler, particularly of works on Nonconformist themes, and as owner and editor of the Eclectic Review, 1814–1837. In 1815 he married the poet Joan Elizabeth Thomas (c. 1786–1877) who wrote as ‘Eliza Thomas’. Southey admired the Associate Minstrels (1810), a collection by Conder and his friends, and arranged for some of the contributors’ work to appear in the Edinburgh Annual Register for 1810 (1812), though he was annoyed by the exclusion of Conder’s poem, ‘Reverie’. Subsequently, Conder wrote to Southey for advice about the Eclectic Review and his other publications and the two developed a regular correspondence.

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Fellow and then Provost of Oriel College, Oxford, and Bishop of Llandaff 1827–1849. Copleston was a writer on theological, social and economic subjects, from a liberal Tory viewpoint, and a leading figure in Oxford University. He gained Southey’s approval through his Three Replies to the Calumnies of the Edinburgh Review (1810–1811), which attacked the Edinburgh Review’s criticism of Oxford’s teaching.

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Prominent Irish politician. Born in Newry, son of the merchant and MP Edward Corry. Educated at the Royal School, Antrim and BA, Trinity College, Dublin, 1773. Succeeded his father as MP for Newry in the Irish Parliament, 1776. Originally an opposition MP, he first gained office as surveyor-general of the ordnance in 1788 and rose to be Irish Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1799–1804. Always a controversial figure, he fought a duel with the opposition MP, Henry Grattan (1746–1820; DNB), in 1800. He supported the British government’s policies of Union between Britain and Ireland and Catholic Emancipation, but was still dismissed by the Prime Minister, William Pitt (1759–1806; DNB) in 1804. Rickman secured Southey the post of Corry’s secretary in 1801–1802.

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The children of Robert Cottle, an unsuccessful Bristol tailor and draper. The family included Amos, Joseph and Robert (?1780–1858), a painter and founder of his own religious sect (‘the Cottlelites’), and five sisters, Elizabeth (c. 1764–1789), Mary (?1772–1839), Ann (?1780–1855), Sarah (d. 1834) and Martha (c. 1785–1800). Southey seems to have been acquainted with the entire Cottle family. After their secret marriage in November 1795, his wife Edith lived with the Cottle sisters for some of the time Southey was absent in Spain and Portugal.

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Poet and translator. Elder brother of Joseph Cottle. Educated at the school run by Richard Henderson (1736/7–1792) at Hanham, near Bristol, and Magdalene College, Cambridge (matric. 1795, BA 1799). He then embarked on a legal training. He spent the final year of his life in London, where he was a friend of George Dyer and Charles Lamb, and died in his chambers at Clifford’s Inn. Author of Icelandic Poetry, or, The Edda of Saemund, Translated into English verse (1797; published by Joseph Cottle and with a dedicatory poem by Southey). Several of his other poems were collected posthumously in the fourth edition of Joseph Cottle, Malvern Hills, With Minor Poems and Essays (1829). Southey probably met Amos Cottle through his younger brother Joseph. The two shared an interest in Scandinavian literature and mythology and it was Southey who encouraged Amos to produce a verse, rather than prose, translation of the Edda and who reviewed it in the Critical Review.

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Bristolian author, bookseller and publisher. Although Coleridge’s biographer James Dykes Campbell joked ‘I never heard of ... [Cottle’s] having ... any [parents], and think it very doubtful. I should think he was found under a booksellers counter wrapped in Felix Farley’s newspaper’, Joseph was in fact the second child of Robert and Sarah Cottle. He was educated at the school run by Richard Henderson (1736/7–1792) at Hanham, near Bristol. In 1791 he opened a shop as a printseller, stationer, binder and bookseller in Bristol. Cottle abandoned bookselling in 1798 but continued publishing. Between 1791 and 1800, he sold, printed or published 114 works, in congeries with Joseph Johnson, Benjamin Flower, H. D. Symons and others. In 1800 he began to sell his copyrights to the London firm of Longman. A poet and prose writer, his works included: Poems (1795), Malvern Hills (1798; with a prefatory poem by Southey), Alfred (1800), The Fall of Cambria (1808), Early Recollections, Chiefly Relating to the Late Samuel Taylor Coleridge, During his Long Residence in Bristol (1837) and Reminiscences of Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey (1847). Cottle and Southey were introduced by Robert Lovell in 1794. Although not wealthy, Cottle provided generous financial help to Southey throughout the 1790s, even lending him money for his wedding ring. He published Joan of Arc and the majority of Southey’s earliest works, including Poems (1797) and Letters Written During a Short Residence in Spain and Portugal (1797). His professional collaboration with Southey also included contributing poems to the Annual Anthology and co-editing the works of their fellow Bristolian Thomas Chatterton (1752–1770; DNB). What Cottle did not know, was that Southey viewed his poetry with a merriment that verged on contempt. The two men met less frequently after Southey’s move to Keswick in 1803, but maintained their correspondence. Southey’s final tour of the West Country in 1836–1837 included a visit to Cottle in Bristol. After Southey’s death, Cottle was a central figure in the successful campaign to erect a monument to his memory in Bristol cathedral. He recorded his association with Southey for posterity in his controversial Reminiscences (1847), itself a reworking of the equally contentious Early Recollections (1837).

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Son of Henry Courtenay (1741–1803; DNB), Bishop of Exeter. He began his career as a junior clerk at the Treasury and remained an administrator even after he entered the House of Commons as MP for Totnes 1811–1832. He was a long-serving Secretary of the Board of Control of the East India Company 1812–1828. Southey corresponded with him about the poor laws in 1817 (Courtenay was a prolific pamphleteer) and sought his advice for the History of the Peninsular War (1823–1832).

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Clergyman, historian and travel writer. His successful clerical career culminated in his appointment as Archdeacon of Wiltshire 1804–1828, but he devoted most of his time to historical writings, including History of the House of Austria (1807) and Memoirs of the Bourbon Kings of Spain (1813). Coxe concentrated on diplomatic exchanges and high politics, leading Southey to view his books as very dull, if worthy. The two corresponded briefly about European history.

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Distinguished army officer, who rose to the rank of Lieutenant-General. He was the MP for East Retford 1806–1812. Southey corresponded with him about the History of the Peninsular War (1823–1832) and revised his inscription ‘For the Walls of Ciudad Rodrigo’ to commemorate the actions of Craufurd’s brother, Robert (1764–1812; DNB), who was killed when storming the city.

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Writer and lexicographer. Born at Dunster Park, Berkshire, the son of Richard Croft. He inherited the Croft baronetcy from a relative in 1797, but no money or lands to accompany the title. He practised as a barrister in London in the late 1770s, and gained some reputation as a miscellaneous writer. Perennially short of money, Croft changed direction and graduated from University College, Oxford in 1785 and was appointed Vicar of Prittlewell in Essex and chaplain of the British garrison in Quebec. Most of his time in the late 1780s and early 1790s was devoted to compiling a new dictionary, but, despite amassing 11,000 entries, he could not find enough subscribers to publish the book and the project was abandoned in 1793. In 1795 Croft was arrested for debt and fled to Hamburg, only returning to England in 1800–1802, after which he lived in France, dying in Paris. In 1780 Croft had published Love and Madness, the story of James Hackman (c. 1752–1779; DNB), who had shot Martha Ray (1742?–1779; DNB), the lover of the Earl of Sandwich (1718–1792; DNB). The book contained a lengthy digression into the life of the Bristol poet Thomas Chatterton (1752–1770; DNB). Southey published a letter in the Monthly Magazine for November 1799, accusing Croft of obtaining some of Chatterton’s letters by deception from the poet’s mother and sister, and refusing to pay them any share of his profits from Love and Madness. Croft’s defence, to say the least, was evasive. In 1803 Southey and Joseph Cottle published a new version of Chatterton’s works for the benefit of his sister and niece.

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Irish Protestant politician and writer. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and called to the Irish Bar in 1802. In 1807 he was elected MP for Downpatrick and became Secretary to the Admiralty 1809–1830. He was a close friend of Wellington and, particularly, of Peel. Croker was a prolific writer of light verse and often acted as an intermediary between the government and the literary world – he played a key role in making changes to Southey’s early Odes as Poet Laureate. He also contributed regularly to the Quarterly Review, where his hostile review of Keats’s Endymion was alleged to have hastened the poet’s death. In the 1830s and 1840s he was seen as one of Peel’s key supporters and was satirised in both Disraeli’s Coningsby and Thackeray’s Vanity Fair. Southey admired some of Croker’s verse, but his attitude was tinged with reserve, as he was well aware of Croker’s connections and influence in literary and political life.

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A Keswick neighbour of the Southeys. She lived opposite the Vicarage of Crosthwaite Church and was a regular visitor to the Southey household in the 1810s and 1820s.

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Poet, songwriter, and periodical writer. Cunningham, the son of a Dumfriesshire factor, was immersed in the literary culture of the Scottish borders. As a youth, he heard Robert Burns (1759–1796; DNB) recite and later walked in Burns’ funeral procession; visited James Hogg (who became a friend); and walked to Edinburgh to catch sight of Walter Scott. The Remains of Nithsdale and Galloway Song (1811), whose ‘old’ poems were actually modern compositions by Cunningham, attracted attention. It was followed by a series of volumes, including Songs, Chiefly in the Rural Language of Scotland (1813), Traditional Tales of the English and Scottish Peasantry (1822), The Songs of Scotland, Ancient and Modern (1825), The Maid of Elvar (1833) and Lord Roldon (1836). He also published the Lives of the Most Eminent British Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (1829–1833) and the Works and Life of Burns (1834). He contributed to Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, the London Magazine, and the Athenaeum, and in 1829 produced an annual, The Anniversary. From 1814–1841, his literary work was fitted around his position as secretary to the sculptor Francis Chantrey (1781–1841; DNB). Southey and Cunningham held one another in mutual high regard. They met socially, corresponded and, in 1829, the Poet Laureate contributed an ‘Epistle from Robert Southey, Esq. to Allan Cunningham’ to The Anniversary.

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The son of the barrister and man of letters Robert Charles Dallas (1754–1824; DNB). In later life he became an evangelical Church of England clergyman and organiser of the Irish Church Missions to the Roman Catholics. As a young man he had served as an army officer during the Peninsular War and at Waterloo, and had composed literary and musical pieces about the Peninsular campaign. In 1818 Dallas sent the manuscript of his Felix Alvarez, Or, Manners in Spain; Containing Descriptive Accounts of Some of the Prominent Events of the Late Peninsular War (1818) to Southey in order to assist the latter in preparing his History of the Peninsular War (1823–1832).

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Army officer. In summer 1808, as commander of the British forces in Portugal, he was responsible for agreeing to the highly controversial Convention of Cintra, by which the French army, its arms and spoils were repatriated in British ships. Dalrymple was recalled to England shortly afterwards and appeared before a government-appointed board of inquiry, which determined that he be exonerated of all blame. Although he was subsequently promoted, reaching the rank of General in 1812, he never received another command. He wrote a memoir of the Peninsular War in 1818, but it remained unpublished until 1830. He also wrote to Southey in 1816 in reply to the latter's criticisms of the Convention of Cintra in the Quarterly Review and sent Southey information for his History of the Peninsular War (1823–1832).

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Bristol wine merchant, trading under the name Danvers and White. He was distantly related to the regicides Sir John Danvers (1584/5–1655; DNB) and General Thomas Harrison (c. 1616–60; DNB) and to the diarist Celia Fiennes (1662–1741; DNB). (Southey possessed a manuscript of Fiennes diary which he had been given by the Danvers family and included unacknowledged excerpts from it in his and Coleridge’s Omniana (1812).) Danvers’ father had ‘been a person of some property’, though the family’s fortunes had since declined. Danvers seems to have had two brothers and two sisters. He never married. A Dissenter, he died in London ‘during a short tarriance there’ and was buried in Asplands Burial Ground, Hackney. Danvers knew Southey from childhood. In 1797, their friendship flourished when Southey and his wife lodged in a house in Kingsdown, next door to Danvers and his mother. In 1799, Southey finished the fifteen book version of Madoc in Mrs Danvers’ ‘parlour on her little table’. When Southey went to Portugal in 1800–1, he left a copy of his poetic magnum opus with Danvers and also delegated the task of collecting materials for the third Annual Anthology to him and Davy. This volume did not appear. Danvers visited Southey at Keswick in summer 1805 and kept a journal of his tour, now in the British Library, Add MS 30929. Extracts from this were published in Kenneth Curry, ‘A note on Wordsworth’s “Fidelity”’, Philological Quarterly, 32 (1953), 212–214.

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Mother of Charles Danvers. She lived at Kingsdown in Bristol and became very close to Southey when he was resident in the city in the late 1790s and 1802–1803. After her death in the influenza epidemic of 1803, Southey described her as someone ‘whom I regarded with something like a family affection.’

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Eldest daughter of Philip Dauncey K.C. (1759–1819) and his wife Marie (Mary) (1769–1804), daughter of Elizabeth Dolignon, who had acted in loco parentis during Southey’s time at Westminster School. Louisa married Robert Bill, an admirer of Southey’s poetry, in 1820. As Southey had known both her parents, in 1819 he wrote to her, commiserating on the death of her father, which he had read about in the newspapers.

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Master of Balliol College, Oxford 1785–1798.

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Born in Penzance, son of Robert Davy, a woodcarver. Educated at Penzance and Truro grammar schools and apprenticed to an apothecary-surgeon in Truro. Davy had wide interests as a young man, writing poetry as well as conducting chemical experiments on the nature of heat, light and acidity. In October 1798 he went to Bristol to work for Thomas Beddoes at his Pneumatic Institution, which opened in March 1799. Davy soon became friendly with Southey and Coleridge, and they both participated in his experiments with nitrous oxide, or ‘laughing gas’. Southey published some of Davy’s early poems in the Annual Anthology (1799) and (1800) and suggested Davy should write a poem on Mango Capac, the first Inca, after Southey had failed in his plan to identify Madoc with the Inca ruler. In January 1801 Davy moved to London, and Southey saw much less of him. Davy worked at the Royal Institution, where he became a Professor in 1802. In 1807 he made a series of experiments there, using the Voltaic pile to isolate previously unknown elements including potassium and sodium. This work was regarded as a brilliant contribution to Britain’s scientific reputation; Southey, while recognising Davy’s genius, thought that he became vain and over-assiduous to win the approval of polite society. Davy was elected President of the Royal Society in 1820.

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Wealthy widow, socialite and distant cousin of Walter Scott. She married Humphry Davy on 11 April 1812.

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Perpetual Curate of Ambleside, 1805–1845, and schoolmaster. His pupils included Hartley and Derwent Coleridge.

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Essayist and admirer of Wordsworth and Coleridge, who lived at Wordsworth’s former home, Dove Cottage, Grasmere, from 1809–1819, when he came to know Southey.

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A friend of Grosvenor Charles Bedford and his family. Daughter of Mr and Mrs Deacon.

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Friends of Grosvenor Charles Bedford and his family.

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Bishop of Beja, 1770–1802, Archbishop of Evora 1802–1814. Member of the Franciscan Order and Professor of Theology at the University of Coimbra 1751–1755. Cenáculo was closely associated with the reforms of the Marquis of Pombal, Prime Minister of Portugal 1750–1777, and retired to his bishopric when Pombal fell in 1777, devoting his energies to his library and promoting education. When Southey visited Portugal in 1800–1801 he obtained a letter of introduction to the Bishop from his uncle, Herbert Hill, and visited him at Beja in April 1801.

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An Usher at Westminster School from 1784.

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The widowed Mrs Dolignon and her sisters, the Misses Delamere, were friends of Southey’s aunt Elizabeth Tyler. Southey spent time at the Delamere home (Theobalds) in Hertfordshire, and Elizabeth Dolignon seems to have acted as his guardian during his time at Westminster School. William Vincent wrote to her (and not to Southey’s parents) regarding his involvement in The Flagellant. Southey, in turn, went from Westminster to the Delameres’ house after his suspension from school. Southey later recorded his ‘utmost reverence and affection’ for Dolignon.

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English antiquarian and Keeper of Manuscripts at the British Museum 1799–1811. Southey reviewed Douce’s Illustrations of Shakespeare and Ancient Manners (1807) and sent him some suggestions for further notes on obscure phrases in Shakespeare’s plays.

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Artillery officer and writer on all aspects of gunnery. He served in Spain 1808–1809 and 1812 and provided Southey with information for his History of the Peninsular War (1823–1832). In return, Southey tried to arrange for Douglas’s, Observations on the Motives, Errors and Tendency of M. Carnot’s System of Defence (1819) to be reviewed in the Quarterly Review. Douglas was later a General and Governor of New Brunswick 1823–1831, and High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands 1835–1840.

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A sister of Southey’s brother-in-law, Robert Lovell; probably either Deborah (1773–1859), Sarah (dates unknown), Lydia (1777–1830) or Rachael Lovell (dates unknown). She had moved to Dublin by 1816 and married Joseph Druitt (1767–1833), an official at the Friends School, Lisburn 1821–1833, probably in 1819. Southey corresponded with her intermittently.

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Writer (mainly on botany, art, literature and politics) and draughtsman. Son of William and Susannah Duppa. Educated (late in life) at Trinity College, Oxford (matric. 1807); entered Middle Temple 1810; graduated LLB Trinity Hall, Cambridge in 1814. His publications included: A Brief Account of the Subversion of the Papal Government in 1798 (1799); Heads from the Fresco Pictures of Raffaele in the Vatican (1802), reviewed by Southey in the Annual Review (1805); A Selection of Twelve Heads from the Last Judgment of Michael Angelo (1801); Memoirs of a Literary and Political Character (1803); and The Life and Literary Works of Michael Angelo Buonarotti, with His Poetry and Letters (1806). The latter contained translations by Southey and William Wordsworth. Southey and Duppa were introduced by Edmund Seward in Oxford in 1793. Duppa was related to Seward and, according to family lore, distantly related to Southey. Part of Southey’s circle, he was at one time engaged to Mary Page, the cousin of Grosvenor Charles and Horace Walpole Bedford. In the 1790s, Southey sought Duppa’s advice about projected illustrated editions of his poems. Later, Duppa provided the material on Westminster Abbey and on art in Southey’s Letters from England (1807).

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Son of a retired officer from Totnes, Devon. He cherished ambitions for a poetic career. As a schoolboy in 1811 he canvassed Walter Scott’s advice and was politely encouraged to improve his writing by gaining more knowledge. In 1813 Dusautoy sent some of his verses to Southey. The latter replied and a correspondence about Dusautoy’s career ensued. He took Southey’s advice and was admitted to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 1813. In 1814 he entered an ode, in Spenserian stanzas, for a university prize in English poetry. He did not win, but did very well in examinations and seemed to have a promising future. However, in 1815 he fell victim to an epidemic sweeping Cambridge. Southey blamed himself, noting that without his encouragement Dusautoy would never have been at the university and would therefore have not contracted the fatal disease. As a tribute, he proposed publishing a selection of Dusautoy’s writing. However, when he obtained the manuscripts, Southey felt they would not suit public taste: ‘To me … the most obvious faults … are the most unequivocal proofs of genius in the author, as being efforts of a mind conscious of a strength which it had not yet learnt to use … But common readers read only to be amused, and to them these pieces would appear crude and extravagant, because they would only see what is, without any reference to what might have been’. The edition of Dusautoy was therefore abandoned.

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Author and advocate of political reform. Son of John Dyer, a shipwright of Bridewell, London. Educated at Christ’s Hospital and Emmanuel College, Cambridge (BA 1778). From the late 1780s to mid 1790s he was active in reformist causes, a member of the Constitutional Society and author of An Inquiry into the Nature of Subscription to the Thirty-Nine Articles (1789, 2nd revised edn 1792), Complaints of the Poor People of England (1793) and A Dissertation on the Theory and Practice of Benevolence (1795). After 1795, he abandoned active politics, turning instead to scholarship and literature. He was a prolific poet whose works included, Poems, Consisting of Odes and Elegies (1792), The Poet’s Fate (1797), and Poetics (1812). Dyer met Southey in c. 1794–1795, probably through Coleridge. He was enthusiastic about Pantisocracy and encouraged the publication of The Fall of Robespierre (1794). He seems to have corresponded with Southey from the mid 1790s, but none of these early letters survive, making it difficult to judge the actual extent of their friendship. It is, however, fair to say, that this has probably been underestimated. A handful of letters written by Southey to Dyer from later periods do exist. Dyer’s close connections with Southey’s literary circle are evidenced in a letter sent to him by Joseph Cottle, 22 April 1797 now in the Houghton Library (Autograph File: Cottle, Joseph).

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Son of Benjamin Disraeli (1730–1816), a wealthy Italian-Jewish merchant. Isaac devoted his life to his library and miscellaneous literary works, most famously his Curiosities of Literature (1791). He corresponded with Southey on literary subjects on an intermittent basis, and dedicated the fourth edition of his The Literary Character; or the History of Men of Genius (1828) to him. Southey praised his good nature, but thought him a mixture of knowledge and ignorance. Isaac was the father of Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881; DNB, Hist P), Prime Minister, 1868, 1874–1880.

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Member of a family of Sussex landowners. He was a friend of Southey’s from Westminster School. D’Oyley was later a barrister and circuit judge and played a leading role in Sussex society and county administration. He had strong antiquarian interests.

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Domestic Chaplain to the Archbishop of Canterbury 1813–1815. He was co–editor of an annotated Bible (1814) for the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge meeting in Bartlett’s Buildings, an Anglican missionary society founded in 1701, and a frequent contributor to the Quarterly Review. He corresponded with Southey in the 1820s.

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A surgeon and apothecary in Keswick, who treated the Southey family.

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Watercolourist who lived in Cavendish Square, London. Edridge sketched Southey in 1804.

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This person approached Southey in December 1819, asking him for a favour, which Southey declined to perform. He might have been Charles Edwards (dates unknown, though possibly a Cambridge solicitor of this name), author of Hofer, and Other Poems (1820), which quoted from Southey’s Letters Written During a Short Residence in Spain and Portugal (1797) at p. 74. If so, he could have asked Southey for a contribution to the volume. Edwards's book was published by Longmans, who also published Southey’s work, and the subject might have appealed to Southey, who was an admirer of the Tyrolese patriot, Andreas Hofer (1767–1810).

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London publishers and booksellers. Southey and his collaborators Bedford and Wynn, employed the Egertons as printers for the first five numbers of the schoolboy magazine The Flagellant, which appeared between 1–29 March 1792. The fifth issue contained a controversial essay denouncing flogging as an invention of the devil. Under pressure from Dr William Vincent, the Head Master of Westminster School, the Egertons revealed that Southey was its author. Southey was expelled and the Egertons’ involvement with The Flagellant ceased. The remaining four issues, 5–26 April 1792, were printed by the Pall-Mall bookseller and printer Edward Jeffrey (dates unknown).

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The ‘Corn-Law Rhymer’. Son of an ironmaster, Elliott became an amateur botanist and a self-taught poet after his brother introduced him to Thomson’s Seasons. From 1808, when Elliott first requested Southey’s advice, Southey encouraged his poetic career: Elliott later declared that Southey had taught him the art of poetry. He published Night, or, the Legend of Wharncliffe in 1818 and Tales of the Night in 1820. From the 1820s, Elliott was a manufacturer in Sheffield, where, disgusted by what he saw as the adverse effects of the Corn Laws on business and on the poor, he campaigned for their repeal, especially through his Corn Law Rhymes (1831). Southey reviewed these critically in 1833, writing to Lord Mahon, ‘I never suspected him of giving his mind to any other object than poetry till Wordsworth put the Corn-Law Rhymes into my hands . . . In such times as these, whatever latent evil there is in a nation is brought out’.

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Man of letters. Ellis entered parliament in 1796 as junior member for Seaford; he never spoke in the house, and did not stand for re-election. He collaborated with George Canning and William Gifford on the journal The Anti-Jacobin; and he was a friend, from 1801, of Walter Scott. Ellis’s Specimens of the Early English Poets (1790, 2nd edn. 1801, 3rd edn. 1803) provided the model for Southey’s Specimens of the Later English Poets (1807).

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Classical scholar. Son of Alexander Elmsley. He was named after his uncle, the famous London bookseller from whom he inherited a considerable fortune. Educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford (matric. 1791, BA 1794, MA 1797, BD and DD 1823), he was described as ‘the fattest undergraduate of his day’ (DNB). Ordained and presented to the living of Little Horkesley, Essex, on his uncle’s death in 1802 he relinquished his duties and income to a curate, though he continued to hold the living until 1816. He made a brief move to Edinburgh, where he met the founders of the Edinburgh Review, to which he became a contributor. He returned to London and in 1807 moved to Kent, where he lived with his mother until 1816. During this time he produced editions of Aristophanes, Sophocles and Euripides and a number of learned papers on classical subjects, published in the Quarterly Review and other periodicals. He travelled at length in Europe c. 1816–1818 and settled in Oxford in 1818. In 1823 (having been unsuccessfully proposed for the Regius Chair of Divinity at Oxford and having turned down the See of Calcutta) he was elected Camden Professor of Ancient History and Principal of St Alban Hall, Oxford, offices he held until his death in 1825. Southey and Elmsley met at Westminster School and remained lifelong friends, though relatively little of what seems to have been an extensive correspondence survives. Elmsley was also a great friend of Charles Watkin Williams Wynn and the latter erected a memorial tablet to him in Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford.

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Lawyer and politician. Younger brother of the barrister and from 1806–7 Lord Chancellor Thomas Erskine, 1st Baron Erskine (1750–1823; DNB).

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Unitarian minister, at Lewin’s Mead Chapel, Bristol, and school master. Educated at the Warrington Academy, he moved to Bristol in 1771. Married Mary Coates (1753–1783) and, after her death, Susanna Bishop (d. 1842). He was on good terms with a number of writers, including Southey (whom he had taught briefly when he took over Mr Foot’s school, Bristol), Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Anna Letitia Barbauld. His publications included The Nature and Causes of Atheism (1797).

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The second wife of John Prior Estlin.

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In 1814 Southey received a letter from ‘Greeton Evans’, who claimed to be a labouring class poet from rural North Wales seeking the Poet Laureate’s advice. Southey was impressed and offered to help the young man. He was shortly afterwards forced to conclude the letter was a hoax.

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American polymath and politician. Everett was appointed to a newly endowed Chair in Greek at Harvard in 1815. This permitted him to study and travel in Europe, which he did between 1815–1819, enrolling for part of this time at Göttingen University alongside his friend George Ticknor. In summer 1818 Everett visited the Lakes and called on Southey. The latter described him as ‘one of the most interesting men I have seen’. Everett returned to America in 1819 and became editor of the North American Review in the following year. He entered political life, serving as a Member of the House of Representatives 1824–1835, Governor of Massachusetts 1836–1840, Minister to the United Kingdom 1841–1845 and Secretary of State 1853–1854. He was a Vice–Presidential candidate in 1860 and was the speaker immediately before Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address in 1863.

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Methodist Minister, bookseller, historian, polemicist and dissident. He was expelled from the main body of Methodists in 1849 and became a central figure in the United Methodist Free Church. He struck up a surprisingly amicable correspondence with Southey, prompted by the latter’s biographical sketch of John Wesley (1703–1791; DNB) in the Correspondent (1817).

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Soldier. Educated at Christ’s Hospital, where he was a friend of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Obtained an army commission, fought in the Peninsular War and was killed at the battle of Salamanca. There is some confusion over Favell’s first name — with some sources citing it as Joseph or Samuel — see C. A. Prance, Companion to Charles Lamb. A Guide to People and Places 1760–1847 (1983), pp. 112–113 and Duncan Wu, ‘Unpublished drafts of sonnets by Lamb and Favell’, Charles Lamb Bulletin, n.s. 75 (1991), 100.

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Danish author who was resident in England 1802–1810 and 1821–1824. Southey drew on some of his works in his Life of Nelson (1813). Feldborg visited Southey in 1821 and they corresponded intermittently.

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Miscellaneous writer from Salisbury. He lived in London from 1799 and wrote a number of guide books and descriptions of his travels. Feltham corresponded briefly with Southey about his A Tour Through the Island of Mann (1798).

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She ran a school for girls in Ambleside and was well known to William Wordsworth and his family. Wordsworth described her, in a letter to Henry Crabb Robinson, 3 March 1822, as having ‘very good dispositions and I believe a good temper … but she was very deaf’, The Letters of William and Dorothy Wordsworth, 2nd edn, The Later Years: Part 1, 1821–1828, ed. Alan G. Hill (Oxford, 1978), p. 111. Miss Fletcher became a great friend of Mary Barker, with whom she lived in 1818 after debts forced her to give up her school. Miss Fletcher later moved to Birmingham.

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Writer and publisher of the radical newspaper the Cambridge Intelligencer. In 1799, Flower was sentenced to six months imprisonment and a fine of £100 for a libel against Richard Watson, the Bishop of Llandaff.

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A hero of Southey’s in the 1790s as the great radical Whig leader and ‘Friend of the People’ who opposed the anti-reform policies of William Pitt’s (1759–1806; DNB) government. Fox was an admirer of pastoral poetry and for this reason Southey sent him a presentation copy of Madoc (Wordsworth had done likewise with Lyrical Ballads). In semi-retirement from politics from 1797–1806, Fox became Foreign Minister in the government headed by Wynn’s uncle, William Wyndham, Baron Grenville, in 1806, dying the same year having seen the bill for the abolition of the slave trade, for which he had long campaigned, pass parliament.

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The wife of Henry Vassall-Fox, 3rd Baron Holland, and a renowned political and literary hostess. Lady Holland discussed Spain and Portugal with Southey, and welcomed him to Holland House where he used the library.

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Whig politician and Hispanophile; nephew of the Whig politician Charles James Fox. Lord Holland gave Southey access to his superb library of books and manuscripts relating to Spain, Portugal and their colonies. Southey used it to research his History of Brazil (1810–1819).

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Postal administrator and book collector. A supporter of William Pitt (1759–1806; DNB), in the 1790s Freeling was involved in monitoring the activities of corresponding societies and supporters of the French revolution. A bibliophile, he was elected to the fellowship of the Society of Antiquaries in 1801. Southey and Freeling were both the sons of Bristol tradesmen. They corresponded over financial matters connected to Southey and Joseph Cottle’s 1803 edition of the works of their fellow Bristolian, Thomas Chatterton (1752–1770; DNB).

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Diplomat. The younger brother of John Hookham Frere, he attended Trinity College, Cambridge, and in 1801 embarked on a diplomatic career. Frere was Secretary of Legation in the British Embassies to Portugal 1801–1802, Spain 1802–1805, 1808–1810 and Prussia 1805–1807. He then served as Secretary to the Embassy to the Ottoman Empire 1807–1808, 1811–1821, and it was in this capacity that Southey wrote to him, introducing Wade Browne (1796–1851), the son of his friend Wade Browne.

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Poet, diplomat, Hispanist, Frere had parodied Southey’s radical ballads in ‘The Friend of Humanity and the Knife-grinder’ in the Anti-Jacobin (1797). Three of Frere’s translations from the Poema del Cid were appended to Southey’s edition of the Chronicle of the Cid. Frere had been Britain’s ambassador to Portugal while Southey’s uncle had lived there; from 1808–1809 he was ambassador to Spain. Southey defended Frere’s conduct in advising Sir John Moore to retreat to Corunna in 1809 and obtained copies of rare Spanish manuscripts for him.

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Stephen Fricker and his second wife Martha Rowles and their six surviving children: Sarah, Mary, Edith, Martha (b. 1777), Eliza (b. 1778) and George (b. 1785). The failure of his business speculations (including the manufacture of sugar pans) contributed to Stephen Fricker’s early death and to a sharp decline in the fortunes of his family. The family home was sold, Mrs Fricker moved into lodgings in Bristol and opened a dame school, and her three eldest daughters became seamstresses, whose clients included Southey’s mother and aunt, Elizabeth Tyler. Southey knew the Frickers from childhood and was ‘partly educated’ with the three eldest girls. The similarity between their situation and his own (Southey’s father was also a bankrupt) was perhaps an important factor in what was to be a lifelong relationship.

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Southey’s first wife. The third surviving child of Stephen Fricker and Martha Rowles. Southey and Edith met as children in Bristol. They married in secret on 14 November 1795 at St Mary Redcliffe, Bristol. As her sister Sarah later explained, Southey ‘left ... [Edith] at the Church door’ and the following day departed for Spain and Portugal. Edith spent the early days of her marriage living with the Cottle sisters and using her maiden name, only reverting to ‘Southey’ when the secret became public in early 1796. Recent biographers of Southey have questioned the state of his marriage, particularly given his lively — even flirtatious — friendships with Mary Barker and Caroline Bowles, who became his second wife in 1839. Compared to these other women, or to her sister Sarah, Edith is a relatively shadowy figure, plagued by physical and mental illness. The deaths of four of her eight children, in particular that of her daughter Isabel in 1826, hastened her decline. She suffered a complete collapse in 1834 and was taken to The Retreat, the pioneering, Quaker-run asylum in York, where she was diagnosed as of ‘unsound mind’ and treated with ‘purgatives, remedies, [and] leeches’. She was released in 1835 ‘as admitted’ — that is, uncured and incurable. Edith spent her final years at her home, Greta Hall, where she was cared for by Southey and her daughters Bertha and Kate. Southey described her death as a release from ‘a pitiable state of existence’.

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Southey’s only brother-in-law. Southey was intermittently successful in gaining him employment, at a bank in Bristol in 1800 and on one of Rickman’s statistical projects in 1804. Though Southey respected George’s good qualities, he was frustrated by his ‘uncommon dullness’, and bemused by his Methodist enthusiasm. He died at Greta Hall after a long illness.

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Southey’s sister-in-law. She never married and spent her final years on the Isle of Man, with her sister Eliza.

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Southey’s sister-in-law. The second surviving child of Stephen Fricker and Martha Rowles. In the early 1790s she worked as an actress in Bath and Bristol theatres. She married Robert Lovell in January 1794, in spite of the disapproval of his family. Their son, also called Robert, was born in 1795. After Lovell’s death in 1796, Southey tried to persuade his family to provide for his widow and child. He was only partially successful. The Lovells gave Robert Lovell Junior the occasional gift (for example, £20 in 1802) and made some contribution to the boy’s early education, but they did not provide consistent, long-term support. As a result, Mary and her son were dependent upon Southey. They lived with or near to the Southeys for the rest of the 1790s and early 1800s and in 1803 accompanied them to their new home, Greta Hall. Mary remained with the Southeys after her son’s apprenticeship to a London printer. She finally moved out when the house was given up after Southey’s death in 1843. She spent her final years living with Kate, Southey’s unmarried daughter, and died on 10 August 1862. She was buried in the Southey grave in Crosthwaite churchyard, on the outskirts of Keswick.

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Southey’s sister-in-law. The eldest surviving child of Stephen Fricker and Martha Rowles. Sarah and Southey were childhood friends and it was through her that Southey met Robert Lovell in late 1793. Sarah married Samuel Taylor Coleridge on 4 October 1795. Her relationship with Southey, who provided her with advice and support during her later marital difficulties, was affectionate, and at times jokey and rumbustious. Indeed, Sarah’s daughter and namesake recorded that Southey had been romantically interested in Sarah Fricker first, only later turning his attentions to her sister Edith.

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DNB

Prince Regent 1811–1820; King of the United Kingdom 1820–1830. Southey met him at a Court levee on 11 November 1813 following his installation as Poet Laureate and gave him what little praise he felt he could in one of his Congratulatory Odes (1814). George IV made only fleeting appearances in the rest of Southey’s Laureate verses and Southey did not commemorate either his Coronation or his death.

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DNB

Long known to Southey as a Tory critic and editor of The Anti-Jacobin, Gifford became the first editor in 1809 of a new conservative journal begun on Southey’s advice – the Quarterly Review. Gifford then approached Southey through their mutual friend Grosvenor Charles Bedford to be a contributor. Gifford continued as editor until 1824, frequently the target of Southey’s ire over the cuts and interpolations he made to Southey’s contributions. In earlier life a shoemaker, Gifford was the author of two powerful verse satires, The Baviad (1791) and The Mӕviad (1795).

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DNB

Poet and astrologer. Born in Antigua, son of Nathaniel Gilbert, speaker of the Antiguan House of Assembly. In 1788 he came to England to work as a lawyer, but suffered a mental collapse and was placed in an asylum run by Richard Henderson (1736/7–1792) at Hanham near Bristol. (In an earlier career as a schoolmaster, Henderson had numbered Joseph Cottle among his pupils.) Gilbert was released after a year and went to London, where he worked as an astrologer and maker of magic talismans. In 1795 he went to Bristol, where he became friends with Southey and Coleridge. In 1796 he published The Hurricane: a Theosophical and Western Eclogue. He disappeared in 1798. It was thought he had left Bristol in search of the ‘Gilberti’, an African tribe with whom he believed he had a spiritual affinity. Southey made enquiries after him, but to no effect. Although by 1820 Southey spoke of Gilbert as long dead, he was in fact probably still alive, dying c. 1825.

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DNB

Philosopher and novelist. Southey was an early enthusiast for his An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice (1793), which he read shortly after its publication. He met Godwin in London in 1797 and disliked him.

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Daughter of Robert and Mary Harding, of Broxbourne, Hertfordshire and wife of William Gonne, whom she married in 1790. She was the godmother of Edith May Southey and the mother of Henry Herbert Southey’s second wife, Louisa Gonne. Southey greatly admired her.

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Wealthy merchant, based in Portugal. He first met Southey in 1800, when he was the packet agent at Lisbon. In 1815 his daughter Louisa married Henry Herbert Southey.

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Second wife of Robert Gooch, whom she married in January 1814. She was the sister of the surgeon Benjamin Travers (1783–1858).

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DNB

Obstetric physician from Great Yarmouth, Norfolk. He became a close friend of Henry Herbert Southey when they both studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh and also knew William Taylor. Gooch graduated MD in 1807 and became, as Henry also did, a contributor to the journal the London Medical Record. In 1811–1812 Gooch set up a successful medical practice in London, and published important works on puerperal fever. Gooch met Southey on a tour of the Lakes in 1811 and the two began a lifelong correspondence. Southey also introduced Gooch to the Quarterly Review, where he became an occasional contributor.

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A merchant in the Portugal and Brazil trade with literary and antiquarian tastes. He assembled an impressive collection of books and manuscripts on Brazil and Southey thanked Gooden for lending him ‘the Life of F. Joam d’Almeida, among other books, and a manuscript Apology for the Jesuits in Paraguay and Maranham, of great importance’; see Southey’s History of Brazil, 3 vols (London, 1810–1819), II, p. [v].

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DNB

Headmaster of Westminster School 1819–1828. He was a clergyman and later Dean of Wells 1831–1845. Southey wrote to him in his capacity as Headmaster of Westminster School.

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DNB

Scottish poet and, from 1809, a clergyman of the Church of Scotland. He published The Sabbath (1804) (reviewed by Southey in the Annual Review (1806)), British Georgics (1808) (reviewed by Southey in the Quarterly Review (1810)), and The Siege of Copenhagen; a Poem (1808). In 1811 Southey wrote of him: ‘His understanding was not equal to his genius, & it required the sunshine of a brighter fortune than ever fell to his lot to counteract a natural melancholy, the constitutional mental disease of men whose feelings are stronger than their intellect … his Sabbath will always remain, – & from all his other pieces … a few rare passages may be culled which the best of us might have been proud to have written.’

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DNB

Scottish poet and author, best known for Memoirs of an American Lady (1809) – a work that was greatly admired by Southey. Born Ann Macvicar, she grew up mainly in New York and Vermont, before her family moved back to Scotland in 1768. In 1778 she married a clergyman, James Grant, and after his death in 1801 supported herself from her writings and by taking in pupils. She was a prominent figure in Edinburgh literary life and Southey met her when he visited the city on 17–18 August 1819. They later corresponded briefly on literary matters.

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DNB, Hist P

Geologist and MP. He was the only surviving child of George Bellas (d. 1784) and his wife Sarah. In 1795 he adopted the surname of his maternal grandfather, the wealthy apothecary Thomas Greenough, on inheriting the latter’s fortune. A Dissenter, he completed his studies at the University of Göttingen in the late 1790s and befriended Samuel Taylor Coleridge. He returned to England in 1801 and was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1807. In the same year he was a founder-member of the club that became the Royal Geological Society. He supported the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, was a founder-member of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, and a proprietor of the company that established University College, London. Between 1807 and 1812 he sat as an MP for the pocket borough of Gatton. In 1818 he lent Southey books on the Guarani language and was thanked for so doing in the final volume of the History of Brazil (1810–1819).

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DNB, Hist P

Charles Watkin Williams Wynn’s uncle. First Lord of the Admiralty, 1806–1807.

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DNB, Hist P

Foreign Secretary 1791–1801, Prime Minister 1806–1807. Grenville was the uncle of Southey’s friend and patron Charles Watkin Williams Wynn.

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DNB

Educated at Christ’s Hospital with Coleridge and Lamb and later the owner and printer of Felix Farley’s Bristol Journal, 1803–1844. He also printed Coleridge’s Biographia Literaria (1817). Gutch was an enthusiastic collector of antiquarian books, and major sales from his library occurred in 1810, 1812, 1817 and 1858.

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Bookseller, originally from Aberdeenshire he moved to Edinburgh where he was a founder of the firm Tait & Guthrie. In autumn 1803 Henry Herbert Southey lodged with him at 2 Nicolson St.

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Businessman, writer and suicide. The son of a wealthy London tea merchant, he was a cousin of Stamford Raffles (1781–1826; DNB), colonial administrator and founder of Singapore. One of Hamond’s sisters lived for a time in the household of Anna Laetitia Barbauld. Hamond’s business failed in 1813. He committed suicide by shooting himself through the head on 1 January 1820. He had, he explained in a note left for the coroner, been planning his death for seven years. Hamond moved in the same circles as Henry Herbert Southey and harboured ambitions to be a writer. In early 1819 he asked Robert Southey, whom he had met socially, to act as his literary executor. The Poet Laureate did not commit himself to doing so, but wrote twice to Hamond. After he received no reply to the second letter, he assumed he had caused offence and that the correspondence was at an end. The next he heard was in January 1820, when Henry Crabb Robinson informed him that Hamond had committed suicide and had named Southey as his literary executor. The latter took the task seriously and proposed an edition of Hamond’s writings. After reading through his surviving manuscripts Southey changed his mind, determining that they had no literary worth and should remain unpublished. Henry Crabb Robinson noted that Hamond’s problems stemmed from self-obsession and a sense of failure: ‘while he had a conviction that he was to have been, and ought to have been, the greatest of men, he was conscious that in fact he was not.’

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Publisher, who mainly specialised in juvenile books. In 1813, in collaboration with C. J. Barrington, he ventured into new territory and suggested that Southey should take up the continuations of John Campbell’s (1708–1775; DNB), Lives of the Admirals and Other Eminent British Seamen (1742–1744). Southey immediately declined the offer on the grounds of his inadequate knowledge of the subject.

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DNB

London solicitor, who became a well-known bibliographer and antiquary. He edited many early English texts and created a very important collection of ephemeral literature. Southey corresponded with him about the works of Thomas Chatterton (1752–1770; DNB).

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DNB, Hist P

Politician. The son of Moreton Walhouse, he changed his name to Littleton in 1812 in order to comply with the terms of the will of his great uncle Sir Edward Littleton, the bulk of whose estates he inherited. He married Hyacinthe Mary (1789?–1849), the illegitimate daughter of Richard, 1st Marquess Wellesley. He was elected MP for Staffordshire in 1812, and supported Canning and Catholic emancipation. In 1835 he was created Baron Hatherton of Hatherton.

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DNB

Painter and diarist. Southey admired his work and corresponded with Haydon whilst working on an article for the Quarterly Review on Haydon’s New Churches, Considered with Respect to the Opportunities they Offer for the Encouragement of Painting (1818).

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DNB

Writer. Brought up in a Dissenting home in London, she first found fame with her Cursory Remarks on an Enquiry into the Experience and Propriety of Public Worship (1792). This propelled her into the circle of radicals around the publisher Joseph Johnson (1738–1809; DNB). Hays’s Memoirs of Emma Courtney (1796) gained her some notoriety, as it was a thinly-disguised version of her relationship with the radical William Frend (1757–1841; DNB). She was caricatured in, among other places, Charles Lloyd’s Edmund Oliver (1798), but her main claim to posthumous fame has been her feminist writings, especially An Appeal to the Men of Great Britain in Behalf of Women (1798). Southey met Hays in London in 1797 and corresponded with her in the early 1800s.

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DNB

Writer and painter. He first met Southey in 1803, whilst in the Lakes on a commission from Sir George Beaumont to paint Coleridge, Hartley Coleridge and Wordsworth. Their relationship was, though, to be conducted largely in the public sphere, via the medium of newspapers and reviews. The catalyst for so public a relationship was undoubtedly Southey’s appointment as Poet Laureate in September 1813. Over the next decade or so Hazlitt produced a series of reviews and essays devoted to Southey and his works. His observations on the new Poet Laureate appeared in the Morning Chronicle on 18 and 20 September 1813, followed by his appraisal of the Laureate’s first ‘official’ publication (the ode Carmen Triumphale) in the pages of the same newspaper on 8 January 1814. His critique was continued in a review of The Lay of the Laureate, gained new ferocity in pages of the Examiner during the 1817 controversy over the illicit publication of Southey’s Wat Tyler, continued in the Lectures on the English Poets (1818–19) and culminated in the pen-portrait of Southey in The Spirit of the Age (1825).

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DNB, Hist P

Landowner and politician. He was the only son of William Heathcote (1772–1802), Rector of Worting, and Elizabeth (1773–1855), a daughter of Lovelace Bigg-Wither (1741–1813) – he was thus a nephew of Herbert Hill’s wife. Heathcote was educated at Winchester College and then at Oriel College, Oxford, where he was taught by John Keble (1792–1866; DNB) and struck up a friendship with John Taylor Coleridge. He inherited a baronetcy and an estate (Hursley Park, Hampshire) from an uncle in 1825, and was MP for Hampshire 1826–1831, Hampshire North 1837–1849, and Oxford University 1854–1868. A staunch Tory and Tractarian, he refused to have Dissenters as tenants. He assisted Southey with arrangements for his 1820 visit to the University of Oxford and they corresponded intermittently afterwards.

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DNB

Younger half-brother of Richard Heber, he was ordained in 1807 and gained some reputation as an Anglican theologian and hymn-writer. He was deeply interested in missionary work, was well-read on West and South Asia and was an occasional contributor to the Quarterly Review. In 1823 his friend Wynn obtained for him the post of Bishop of Calcutta and he died in India after a brief, but highly successful, term of office. Southey wrote a poem in memory of Heber for the Life of Reginald Heber (1830).

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DNB, Hist P

Book-collector. Son of Reginald Heber, clergyman and landowner. Educated at Brasenose College, Oxford (BA 1796, MA, 1797). Heber edited some minor classical writers, but his main interest was his book collection, which finally totalled over 100,000 volumes housed in eight different locations. Though he concentrated on early English poetry and drama his library included classical works and a wide selection of European and Latin American literature. Heber was exceptionally generous in lending his books, and let Southey use his copy of Amadis of Gaul. Heber was MP for Oxford University 1821–1825, but resigned and spent several years on the continent after rumours of a homosexual relationship began to circulate. However, he was never prosecuted and eventually returned to England.

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DNB

Poet, dramatist, reviewer and editor. The son of the law stationer James Abraham Heraud (d. 1846) and his wife Jane (d. 1850), he was educated privately. Eschewing the business career for which he had been intended, Heraud embarked on a literary life. He wrote essays, including ones on German literature, for periodicals, contributing to the Quarterly Review from 1827 and the Athenaeum from 1843. He was the assistant editor of Fraser’s Magazine 1830–1833. He also published poems, including the epics The Descent into Hell (1830) and The Judgement of the Flood (1834), and plays. Heraud had a wide circle of acquaintances. Southey was one of the many more established writers Heraud knew socially and from whom he solicited advice on his writing and literary career.

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DNB, Hist P

Started his life in office in 1798 as a junior, but well-connected, civil servant at the Treasury. He played an important part in the British war effort as Commissary-in-Chief 1811–1816, and later moved into politics as Financial Secretary to the Treasury 1823–1827, and Chancellor of the Exchequer 1827–1828. Southey knew him through Grosvenor Bedford and Herries proved helpful with franking Southey’s correspondence.

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DNB

Lord Chamberlain 1812–1821, and as such, a key figure in the appointment of Southey as Poet Laureate in 1813.

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Fourth son of Herbert and Catherine Hill. He became a lawyer.

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Daughter of Lovelace Bigg-Wither (1741–1813), a Hampshire landowner. She and her sisters were friends of Jane Austen (1775–1817; DNB). In 1808 she married Herbert Hill and the couple had six children.

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Eldest son of Herbert and Catherine Hill. Southey greatly liked him and invited him to spend the summer at Greta Hall in 1830. He became a clergyman and was Rector of Sheering, Essex, 1849–1899.

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Third son of Herbert and Catherine Hill; a clergyman and Fellow of New College, Oxford. He was reputed to have proposed marriage to Southey’s daughter Katherine (Kate), but was turned down.

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The only daughter of Herbert Hill and his wife Catherine.

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Southey’s maternal uncle. Hill was the product of a second marriage, and after his father’s death was left short of money (even having to ‘pay his own school bills when it was in his power’) and on extremely bad terms with his older half-brother. Hill was educated at Christ Church, Oxford (BA 1772, MA 1774). From 1782–1807, he was chaplain to the British factory at Lisbon. Hill took a paternal interest in his nephews, and helped finance Southey’s education. Hill’s concern about Southey’s refusal to take the path mapped out for him (a path leading to ordination), his relationship with Edith Fricker, and his politics, led him to visit England in 1795. He returned to Portugal with Southey in tow. Oblivious to the fact that his nephew had married Edith the day before their departure, Hill used every opportunity to introduce Southey to more suitable women. Nevertheless, the time Southey spent with his uncle in 1795–1796 greatly strengthened their relationship, which remained close until Hill’s death in 1828. Hill encouraged his nephew’s interests in Spanish and Portuguese history and literature – the History of Brazil and the unfinished History of Portugal were projects prompted by Hill, who supplied books and manuscripts for them. When in 1806, the expected French invasion of Portugal forced Hill to contemplate returning to England, Southey was detailed to go to Hill’s parish of Staunton-on-Wye, Herefordshire and investigate the mismanagement of tithe income. Hill returned to this living in November 1807 and was the incumbent there until 1810, when the Duke of Bedford presented him to a parish in Streatham, near London. In 1808 Hill had married a woman twenty-five years his junior, Catherine Bigg-Wither, a friend of Jane Austen (1775–1817; DNB). The marriage produced six surviving children, all of whom were on good terms with Southey and his family. Hill’s son and namesake, Herbert Hill Junior, married Southey’s daughter Bertha in 1839. Southey dedicated his Colloquies (1829) to his uncle.

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Second son of Herbert and Catherine Hill. He married his cousin, Southey’s daughter Bertha, in 1839 and spent most of his life as a schoolmaster. He was Master of King’s School, Warwick, 1842–1876.

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Southey’s cousin, probably the daughter of his mother’s brother Joseph Hill.

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The youngest child of Herbert Hill and his wife Catherine; he was named after his first cousin Robert Southey. In later life he became a doctor and botanist.

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DNB

Book-collector and part-proprietor of the Monthly Mirror. Born in Lancaster in May 1760, he went at an early age to London, where for many years he carried on an extensive business as a drysalter at Queenhithe. He patronized Robert Bloomfield, whose The Farmer’s Boy he read in manuscript and recommended to a publisher. In his role as part-owner of the Monthly Mirror he befriended one of its contributors, the youthful Henry Kirke White. Southey believed that Hill owned probably ‘the best existing collection of English poetry’.

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Doctor at Hendon and travel writer. With Paul Moon James he planned the idea of an edition of the works of the Bristol poet, William Isaac Roberts, which appeared in 1811. Southey was sympathetic to the project and agreed to promote the book amongst his friends and colleagues.

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DNB

A shepherd by upbringing, Hogg taught himself to read and write and became an admirer of the verse of Burns. Scott employed him to help compile his collection of ballads, Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border. Hogg published a collection of poems, The Mountain Bard, in 1807, and another, The Forest Minstrel, in 1810. A fringe member of the Edinburgh literary set, Hogg communicated news of forthcoming critical reviews to Southey, and was himself featured, mockingly, in Blackwoods Magazine.

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DNB, Hist P

Politician, close friend and executor of Edward Gibbon (1737–1794; DNB). He was an MP for Coventry, 1780– 1784, and Bristol, 1790–1802. He was raised to the peerage as Baron Sheffield in 1802, and obtained an earldom in 1816. Southey corresponded with him in 1817–1818, when Sheffield offered Southey sight of the papers of his son-in-law, General Sir Henry Clinton (1771–1829; DNB), to help with his History of the Peninsular War (1823–1832).

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Anglican clergyman, Vicar of St John the Baptist, Croxall, 1809–1838. In 1811 he married Diana Sarah (d. 1857), daughter of the Jamaican plantation owner Nathaniel Bayly (1726–1798, Hist P), MP for Abingdon 1770–1774 and Westbury 1774–1779. In 1821 Holworthy sent Southey a copy of his Poems, by a Clergyman, published earlier in the same year.

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DNB

Radical satirist, journalist and bookseller. He was tried on three successive days, 18–20 December 1817, for blasphemous and seditious libel, but was acquitted after conducting his own defence, speaking for about seven hours on all three days. His The Political House that Jack Built (1819) was one of the most famous and bestselling satires of its day. In this phase of his career Southey regarded Hone with contempt and was anxious to see him jailed or transported. Hone later devoted himself to miscellaneous literature, and his political ideas modified as he became an increasingly devout Christian and an occasional correspondent of Southey’s.

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Naval officer, Captain of the Mars, in which Tom Southey served. Killed 21 April 1798 when the Mars captured the French vessel, L’Hercule. Hood and two of his brothers were later the subject of a memorial inscription by Southey.

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DNB

A cousin of the Captain of the Mars, Vice Admiral of England and Commander of the Channel Fleet 1795–1800.

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DNB

Dean of Worcester and brother of the writer and hoaxer Theodore Hook (1788–1841; DNB). Educated at Westminster School and St Mary Hall, Oxford (his admission to Christ Church was blocked in 1792 because of his involvement in ‘acts of insubordination’ whilst at school). Hook was one of the editors of the schoolboy magazine, The Trifler, and a keen musician and artist. He was a friend of Southey’s during his time at Westminster, but their friendship did not last beyond schooldays.

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Clergyman. The son of an Oxfordshire cleric, he was educated at Corpus Christi, Oxford (BA 1795), where he remained as a fellow from 1795–1819. He was Rector of Heydon and Little Chishill from 1810. He was a university friend of Southey’s. Although they lost touch in the mid 1790s, in 1835 after a gap of ‘one and forty years’ Horseman wrote to Southey recalling their old acquaintance. At the time of their reunion, Southey was not aware that at the height of the Wat Tyler controversy in 1817, a ‘John Horseman’ — presumably the same one — had sent his political opponent William Smith (1756–1835) a transcript of another production of the Poet Laureate’s radical youth — ‘To the Exiled Patriots’. Horseman’s letter is now in the William R. Perkins Library, Duke University.

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Clergyman. Possibly the son of John Howe of Honiton, Devon. Educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge and Balliol College, Oxford. Howe was Rector of Huntspill, Somerset 1804–1823. He was Southey’s tutor at Oxford in 1793–1794.

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DNB

Bishop of London 1813–1828; Archbishop of Canterbury 1828–1848. He visited Southey in 1819 and they corresponded about Southey’s efforts to find a chaplain for the expatriate community in Pernambuco.

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Writer. Educated at Cambridge, Hucks accompanied Samuel Taylor Coleridge on his 1794 tour, publishing an account — A Pedestrian Tour Through North Wales, in a Series of Letters — the following year. Southey — and Coleridge — renewed their acquaintance with him during their visit to Exeter in 1799 and Hucks contributed three poems to Southey’s Annual Anthology (1800). He died of consumption in 1800. In an unpublished preliminary notice to his Specimens of the Later English Poets (1807) Southey recalled the ‘many pleasant & rememberable hours’ he and Hucks had spent together.

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The daughter of the Anglican clergyman George Watts (d. 1810), she married another cleric, Thomas Hughes. In the late 1810s she became a friend and correspondent of Southey and, later, of his second wife Caroline Bowles. She was also on excellent terms with Walter Scott, and her Letters and Recollections of the latter was published in 1904.

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Anglican clergyman and tutor to various members of the Royal Family from 1777. He became a Canon of Westminster Abbey 1793–1807, a Prebend of St Paul’s in 1807 and Vicar of Uffington in 1816. His wife, Mary Ann Hughes, was also a correspondent of Southey’s.

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DNB

The child of radical, Unitarian parents, Hunt quickly earned a reputation as a poet and a theatrical critic. In 1808–1821 he was the editor of the anti-government paper The Examiner, a role that earned him two years in prison, 1813–1815, for attacking the Prince Regent. Southey was resentful of Hunt’s criticism of Coleridge and Wordsworth and thoroughly disliked The Examiner and its politics. In later life Hunt became a friend and supporter of Byron, Shelley and Keats and a well-known (though never a wealthy) man of letters.

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Daughter of a family of Yorkshire farmers, she was the younger sister of Mary Wordsworth. Coleridge fell in love with her in winter 1799 during his first visit to the north of England and the Lakes. Over the next decade, their relationship caused great distress to them and their respective families. Practical and eminently capable, Sara, who never married, spent a great deal of time with the Wordsworths and their children. She also became a very close friend of the Southey family, providing invaluable assistance after the death of Herbert Southey in 1816 and also in the mid 1830s during Edith Southey’s confinement in The Retreat, York.

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DNB, Hist P

Only son of Hugh Inglis, 1st Baronet (1744–1820; Hist P), Director of the East India Company and MP for Ashburton 1802–1806. Inglis was exceptionally well connected – Robert Peel was a friend from their days at Oxford University. He was also close to William Wilberforce; in 1815 he became the guardian of the nine orphaned children of their mutual friend, the banker and abolitionist Henry Thornton (1760–1815; DNB). Inglis was MP for Dundalk 1824–1826, Ripon 1828–1829, and Oxford University 1829–1854, but never held high office. Instead, he forged a reputation as a staunch defender of the Church of England and opponent of political reform. He became a correspondent of Southey’s in 1817, and the two first met in London in May of that year when Inglis introduced Southey to a number of leading politicians. Southey respected Inglis’s piety, philanthropy and commitment to the Established Church.

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Builder, owner and co-occupier of Greta Hall. A carrier by trade, Jackson was the model for Wordsworth’s ‘Benjamin the Waggoner’.

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He wrote to Southey in 1803–1804, claiming that he had submitted a poem for inclusion in the Annual Anthology. Nothing further is known of him.

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Birmingham Quaker, poet and banker. In 1808 he married Olivia Lloyd (1783–1854), sister of Charles Lloyd. He was also editor of the poems of the Bristol writer William Isaac Roberts. Southey was sympathetic to this project and promoted the book among his friends.

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DNB

Army officer and author. He was appointed to the post of Consul in Galicia in 1791. He was a friend of William Godwin and Joel Barlow (1754–1812; DNB), and his writings included Letters from Barbary, France, Spain, Portugal &c. (1788). He and Southey met during the latter’s 1795–1796 visit to the Iberian peninsula. He figures in both Southey’s correspondence from this period and in Letters Written During a Short Residence in Spain and Portugal (1797).

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DNB

The eldest child of David Jardine (1766–1797), Minister of the Trim Street Unitarian Chapel, Bath. Jardine was an undergraduate at the University of Glasgow and Southey helped his education by lending him books. He later pursued a career in the law, becoming a magistrate and a legal historian.

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Widow of David Jardine (1766–1797), Minister of the Trim Street Unitarian Chapel, Bath. She was the daughter of George Webster of Hampstead. The Jardines owned a small estate at Pickwick, near Bath.

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DNB

Irish clergyman, who rose to be Church of Ireland Bishop of Limerick, Ardfert, and Aghadoe 1823–1833. He was a close friend of Robert Inglis. In 1818 Jebb sent Southey a copy of the second edition of his Sermons, on Subjects Chiefly Practical. This initiated a correspondence on religious and political matters that lasted until Jebb’s death.

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DNB, Hist P

Scottish, Whig lawyer and critic, from 1803 editor of the Edinburgh Review and, as such, Southey’s bête noire for damning reviews of his, Wordsworth’s and Coleridge’s poetry (Jeffrey is credited with identifying them as a school or sect of poets; see Edinburgh Review, 1 (October 1802), 63–83). Southey affected indifference but was acutely sensitive to Jeffrey’s reviews. Jeffrey’s reluctance to support war with Napoleonic France also incurred Southey’s wrath, as appears in the notes to Carmen Triumphale (1814), in which Southey enjoys demonstrating how the Edinburgh’s predictions of defeat were erroneous as well as morale-sapping. The two men met in Edinburgh in October 1805, and Southey ever after consoled himself for the printed criticisms by remembering Jeffrey’s diminutive stature.

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DNB

Writer. Born in Huntspill, Somerset, son of a village shopkeeper, John Jennings, and his wife Elizabeth Fear. Educated locally and at North Petherton School. Apprenticed to a Bristol apothecary in 1786. He contributed poems to the European Magazine and in 1794 published The Times, a satire. Jennings moved to London shortly after his marriage to Charlotte Sawier, probably the only daughter of Southey’s landlady Mary Sawier, in 1795. He returned to work in his family’s shop in 1801 and remained in Huntspill until the mid-1810s, when economic depression led to the failure of the business. He continued with his literary pursuits, contributing to the Monthly Magazine (from 1807) and publishing Poems, Consisting of the Mysteries of Mendip, the Magic Ball (1810). He returned to London in 1817 and worked as a professional writer, with some support from Sir William Paxton, a wealthy banker. His works included the Family Cyclopaedia (1821), Observations on Some of the Dialects of the West of England (1825) and Ornithologia (1828). He founded the short-lived Metropolitan Literary Institution in 1823 and was editor of the Metropolitan Literary Journal (1824). Jennings met Southey (and Coleridge) in Bristol in c. 1794. Although they were not close friends, he and Southey corresponded (the correspondence has not survived) and remained in contact until c. 1828. Jennings was a great admirer of Southey’s writing, but the admiration was not reciprocated. Southey nicknamed him ‘poor Trauma’ and ‘the traumatic poet’, though he admired Jennings’s ‘moral character’. Jennings shared Southey’s interest in educational methods, and in 1813, in collaboration with the local rector at Huntspill, established a school conducted on Lancaster and Bell’s monitorial systems. Jennings included anecdotes of Southey and Coleridge’s early careers in the Metropolitan Literary Journal (1824).

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He was based in or near Liverpool, but little is known of his background or occupation. In 1821, in response to Southey’s The Life of Wesley (1820), he wrote to Southey offering to lend him papers by John Wesley (1703–1791; DNB) in his possession.

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Commander in Chief of the British Mediterranean Fleet 1796–9, 1800–1801, First Sea Lord 1801–1804.

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Educated at Westminster School (adm. 1786). A friend of Southey’s during his schooldays.

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Son of Sir John Kennaway, 1st Baronet (1758– 1836), who made a fortune in service to the East India Company and became a landowner in Devon. He served as Vicar of Chipping Campden 1832–1872 and Canon of Gloucester Cathedral. Kennaway visited Southey in October 1819 and again in October 1820 when he was on a tour of the Lake District in company with his university friend, Leland Noel.

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DNB

Lawyer, landowner in North Wales and prominent opponent of Catholic Emancipation. He was also a close friend of Andrew Bell. Once Southey agreed to write Bell’s biography, this involved him in some correspondence with Kenyon, who was a trustee of the organisation set up in Bell’s Will to promote his educational plans.

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DNB

When a resident of Nether Stowey he was introduced to Southey, Wordsworth and Coleridge by Thomas Poole. Kenyon was a very wealthy man, with extensive land holdings in Jamaica. He was well known for his generosity and contributed to the costs of Derwent Coleridge’s education. He was one of the party who accompanied Southey on his final tour of France in 1838.

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Doctor and author of medical treatises. Educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford (matric. 1793, BA 1797). A friend of Southey’s during his time at Oxford, and possibly a school friend as well.

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Younger sister of Maria Edgeworth (1768–1849; DNB). She married John King in 1802 and the couple had two daughters.

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Bristol-based surgeon, painter and linguist, originally from Berne, Switzerland. He came to England in the 1790s and studied medicine under John Abernethy (1764–1831; DNB) at St Bartholomew’s Hospital, before settling at Clifton in Bristol. He married Emmeline Edgeworth, a sister of the novelist Maria (1768–1849; DNB). Southey came to know King well when he succeeded Davy in his role at the Pneumatic Institution in 1801. Southey saw much less of King after he moved to Keswick in 1803, but he continued to speak warmly of his personal qualities and medical skill.

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Courtier and physician. He became a friend of Henry Herbert Southey while the two men were studying medicine at the University of Edinburgh, and set up a London practice in 1806. He was appointed physician to the Prince of Wales (the future George IV) in 1810 and gradually assumed the role of sorting out the Prince’s tangled finances. In 1822 he became Keeper of the Privy Purse and, effectively, George IV’s private secretary. Knighton furthered Henry Herbert’s career, ensuring he succeeded him as physician to George IV in 1823. Knighton also aided Robert Southey by presenting A Vision of Judgement (1821) to George IV.

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DNB

A Member of a family of Nonconformist cloth merchants and manufacturers from Gomersal, near Leeds, Herbert was orphaned in 1805. His relatives eventually recognized his academic talents and he was sent to Richmond Grammar School. Knowles was concerned that he did not have the funds to enter Cambridge University (and possibly that his family would not be prepared to support his ambition to study there). In October 1816 he sent one of his poems, ‘The Three Tabernacles’ (also known as ‘Lines written in the Churchyard of Richmond, Yorkshire’) to Southey, asking permission to dedicate it to him. The latter saw great promise, was moved by Knowles’s situation, and raised funds to help him take up a place at Cambridge. Knowles was elected a sizar at St John’s College on 31 January 1817, but died on 17 February 1817 and was buried at Heckmondwike Independent Chapel. In 1819 Southey included ‘Lines’ at the end of an article in the Quarterly Review, paying tribute to Knowles’s ‘extraordinary merits’ and ability to write with ‘such strength and originality upon the tritest of all subjects’ (Quarterly Review, 21 (April 1819), 396–398).

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Son of the Lisbon merchant, John Theodore Koster. At the age of only sixteen his father sent him to Brazil, both for his health and to set up as a sugar planter. Koster travelled extensively in Pernambuco and returned to England only briefly in 1811 and again in 1815. On the latter occasion, his visit to Southey in Keswick turned into a prolonged stay after Koster was injured in a coach accident. Koster had already aided Southey’s History of Brazil (1810–1819) by locating manuscript material in Pernambuco; in 1815 he helped Southey decipher Portuguese texts and set about translating the first volume of the History of Brazil into Portuguese. He also accompanied Southey on his visit to the Low Countries in the autumn of 1815. Southey encouraged Koster to publish his journal of his time in Brazil as Travels in Brazil (1816), a widely admired book that is still an important source for the social history of North East Brazil. Koster returned to Pernambuco in 1816 and died there in 1820.

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English sugar merchant, whom Southey met in Portugal during his visit of 1800–1801 and again in Liverpool in 1804. Koster lodged in Keswick in 1815–1816 after suffering heavy financial losses and later relocated to France, where he died at Bordeaux. Koster’s home in Lisbon was a meeting place for those interested in the arts and sciences and he was a man of wide interests, a member of the Portuguese Royal Academy of Sciences and a writer on economic matters, including A Statement of the Trade in Gold Bullion (1811). His son, Henry Koster, was also a friend of Southey’s.

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Wife of John Theodore Koster, whom she married in Lisbon in 1778. The couple had twelve children, many of whom died young.

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DNB

Antiquarian and librarian. Born in Edinburgh, he was the son of the publisher and antiquarian bookseller William Laing (1764–1832; DNB) and his wife Helen (1767–1837). The elder Laing had lent books to help Southey with his edition of Le Morte d'Arthur (1817) and Southey visited his shop on his trips to Edinburgh in 1806 and 1819. David Laing entered his father’s business, becoming a partner in 1821. As well as being highly regarded for his professional knowledge, Laing also assembled his own extensive collection of books and manuscripts. Honours included election to a Fellowship of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland in 1824 and to the post of Librarian to the Society of Writers to H.M. Signet in 1837. Southey, who supported Laing’s candidacy for the latter, shared many of his bibliophilic and antiquarian interests, and they corresponded intermittently.

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Essayist. Educated at Christ’s Hospital, where he was a friend of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, he was later a clerk at the East India Company. Lamb and Southey met in 1795. Their relationship started to blossom in 1797, when Lamb — accompanied by Charles Lloyd — paid Southey an unexpected visit. Southey and Lamb shared an interest in Francis Quarles (1592–1644; DNB). They quarrelled briefly — and publicly — in 1823, but were reconciled. Although they corresponded, Southey’s letters to Lamb have not survived.

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Writer. Sister of Charles Lamb. She suffered from bouts of insanity and in 1796 she killed their mother. After this incident she was cared for by her brother or in asylums. The siblings wrote Tales from Shakespeare (1809) together.

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Politician. The eldest son of Thomas Phillipps Lamb and his wife Elizabeth Davis. Educated at Westminster (adm. 1788); Edinburgh University (1792) and Christ Church, Oxford (matric. Dec 1793). Lamb’s family were wealthy, politically influential and well-connected. His father was the government manager at Rye, Sussex. Lamb’s career benefited from the patronage of Lord Liverpool (1727–1808; DNB) and his eldest son, Lord Hawkesbury, a future Prime Minister. Lamb was private secretary to Hawkesbury, then Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1801–1802, and in 1802 was offered but rejected the consulship at Lisbon, a post worth between £2000–2500 per year. He sat as an MP for Rye from 1802–1806, though he seems never to have spoken in the House of Commons. He vacated his seat when appointed to the post of Law Clerk at the Home Office by the Ministry of ‘Talents’. Following in the footsteps of his grandfather and father, he was Mayor of Rye from 1803–1804, 1809–1810 and 1816–1817. He never married. Southey described Lamb as ‘one of my oldest — & once one of my most intimate friends’. The two met whilst pupils at Westminster and Southey stayed with Lamb’s family in Rye on more than one occasion. They drifted apart (though, Southey later noted, ‘without dissention’) during Southey’s time at Oxford. Lamb seems to have made an effort to renew their acquaintance, seeking Southey out in London in 1802. In later years, however, Southey’s opinion of him soured. He described him as one who had ‘discarded decency’ and on reading of Lamb’s death in a newspaper admitted that he had: ‘ ... thought more of him, poor fellow, in consequence, than I had done for the last four-and-twenty years ... [He] had become a mere idle heir of fortune, and not having his estates to manage while his father lived, had not even that occupation to keep him from frivolities. He was an old man at thirty, and that too being of a family in which it is degeneracy to die at an age short of fourscore.’

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Politician. The father of Thomas Davis Lamb. He was married to Elizabeth Davis and lived at Mountsfield Lodge, near Rye. By the mid-eighteenth century the Lamb family had become the dominant force on Rye corporation and wielded great political influence in the borough. Lamb was the government agent in Rye and sat as an MP for the town 1812–1816 and 1819, though (like his son) he is not known to have spoken in the House of Commons. He was Mayor of Rye some 18 times between 1775–1817. Southey twice visited the Lambs home in Rye in 1791 and 1792 and was on excellent terms with Thomas Phillipps Lamb, perhaps seeing him as a surrogate father-figure. Their correspondence lapsed during Southey’s time at Oxford and was briefly renewed in 1798.

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The educationalist whose monitorial system of teaching mirrored that of Southey’s friend Andrew Bell. Although a Quaker, and opposed to corporal punishment, Lancaster’s disciplinary methods, involving public humiliation and confinement, lost him Southey’s approval. Bell relentlessly promoted his own Anglican educational system over Lancaster’s, and Lancaster found greater success in the United States, Mexico and South America.

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The daughter of an unsuccessful banker, she married Landor on 24 May 1811. They lived firstly on Landor’s estate at Lanthony and then in Italy. The Landors had three sons and one daughter, but by the 1830s their marriage was troubled. Landor left his wife in 1835 and settled first in England and then Italy.

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Writer and clergyman. Youngest brother of Walter Savage Landor.

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Writer and poet (in English and Latin) whose 1798 Gebir, Southey declared, contained ‘some of the most exquisite poetry in the language’. Landor inherited wealth in 1805 and in 1808 met Southey at Bristol, offering to pay for the publication of future poems that Southey might write. Thus encouraged, Southey completed The Curse of Kehama (1810), sending drafts to Landor, and Roderick the Last of the Goths (1814). In 1812 Landor himself published a blank verse tragedy on Spain, Count Julian, with Southey’s help. In 1808 Landor went to Spain to fight with the Spanish against their French occupiers. Upon landing at Corunna, he ‘immediately gave the governor ten thousand reals for the relief of Venturada, which had been sacked by the French’. He engaged in some minor action at Bilbao and ‘had the satisfaction of serving three launches with powder and muskets, and of carrying on my shoulders six or seven miles a child too heavy for its exhausted mother’ (quoted by Malcolm Elwin, Savage Landor (London, 1941), pp. 101–102). Thoroughly disgusted by the Convention of Cintra, and believing that he had been insulted by Charles Stuart, Baron Stuart de Rothesay (1779–1845; DNB), British envoy to the Spanish juntas in French-occupied Spain, he returned to England and from 1809, he lived at Llanthony Abbey in Wales, where Southey visited him in 1811. Landor left England to live in France and Italy in 1814. He received Southey’s advice on his Imaginary Conversations (1824–46), visited Southey in Keswick in 1832, returned to England in 1836 and met Southey for the last time in Bristol in 1837. In 1843 Landor published a tribute after Southey’s death in The Examiner; he also sought advancement for Charles Cuthbert, Southey’s son, in the church. Admired by Dickens, Browning, Swinburne and Trollope, Landor spent his final years in Italy and died in Florence.

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Moravian minister and composer – he was a friend of Joseph Haydn (1732–1809; DNB). Born into the Moravian community at Fulneck, Yorkshire, he was educated in Germany and returned to England in 1784. From 1787 to 1834 he was secretary to the Moravian Brethren’s Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel to the Heathen. In 1790 he initiated the influential Periodical Accounts of Moravian missions, and in 1795 became secretary of the international Moravian church in Britain. He moved in interdenominational evangelical circles and was much sought after by founders of new missionary societies. In 1820 he wrote to Southey complaining about the portrayal of the Moravians in the Life of Wesley (1820). Southey replied that he had not intended to cause offence and offered to make changes in the next edition. Latrobe was clearly not pacified and wrote again. Southey did not reply to this second letter, putting an end to their correspondence.

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A Unitarian member of the circle of William Roscoe in Liverpool, whom Southey met on his visit there in February 1808. Lawrence ran a school, the Gateacre Academy, with her sisters Sarah and Eliza. A native of Birmingham, she moved to Leamington in later life.

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Portrait painter. The son of a Bristol innkeeper, he was self–taught and displayed his brilliant talents as a draughtsman from childhood. He established himself as a fashionable painter in 1790 with a portrait of Queen Charlotte (1744–1818; DNB) and was much patronised by royalty. He was knighted in 1815 and was elected President of the Royal Academy in 1820. Southey wrote to him that year in response to an invitation he had received to the Academy’s Annual Dinner. Sir Robert Peel later commissioned Lawrence to paint Southey’s portrait. Consequently, in 1828 Southey, who was visiting London, sat a number of times for Lawrence at his studio. The resultant portrait was widely admired and is now in the South African National Gallery.

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Soldier. The younger brother of Coleridge’s school fellow, Charles Valentine Le Grice (1773–1858). Educated at Christ’s Hospital, where he was a contemporary and friend of Charles Lamb, and Trinity College, Cambridge. He obtained an army commission and died in Jamaica.

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Clergyman and schoolmaster. Educated at Balliol and Corpus Christi Colleges, Oxford (matric. 1792, BA 1796). He became a curate and master of the grammar school in Honiton, Devon. A friend of Southey’s at Oxford, they lost touch in later years.

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Eldest son of Southey’s schoolfriend from Westminster, Nicholas Lightfoot. He was a clergyman and long-serving Rector of Exeter College, Oxford, 1854–1887.

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Clergyman and schoolmaster. Son of Nicholas Lightfoot of Moretonhampstead, Devon. Educated at Balliol College, Oxford (matric. 1790, BA 1794). Perpetual curate for Churcheton, Devon from 1795 and Rector of Stockleigh Pomeroy from 1831–1847. Southey met Lightfoot at Balliol and their friendship endured until his death. Southey briefly considered sending his brother Edward Southey to be educated by Lightfoot and in later life stayed with him during visits to the south west of England.

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Wquire of Penkridge, Staffordshire, who lived at Teddesley Hall, where Mary Barker resided as his companion. Littleton was MP for Staffordshire from 1784 to 1812. Mary Barker’s brother-in-law, William Brewe (dates unknown), was his steward.

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A Tory politician who was successively Foreign Secretary, Home Secretary, Secretary of State for War and the Colonies and then, from 1812–1827, Prime Minister. Southey wrote to him directly in 1817, urging further measures to suppress the Radical press.

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Poet. Eldest child of Charles, a wealthy Quaker banker, and his wife Mary. He matriculated at Caius College, Cambridge in 1798 but did not take his degree. He married Sophia Pemberton in 1799 and they moved to Ambleside in 1800. His works included: contributions to Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s Poems (1797), Blank Verse (1798) (co-authored with Charles Lamb), the controversial roman-à-clef Edmund Oliver (1798), Nugae Canorae (1819), Desultory Thoughts in London (1821), Poetical Essays on the Character of Pope (1821), and The Duke d’Ormond (1822). Lloyd met Southey at Burton in August 1797, when he and Charles Lamb unexpectedly turned up on Southey’s doorstep. Lloyd remained with Southey and his family for several months. Southey recognised in him a fellow man of strong emotions, a kindred — yet also unlike — spirit, and worried that Lloyd’s ‘feelings ... are not so blunt as we could wish them — or as they should be for his own happiness’. Indeed Lloyd’s continued presence was increasingly unwelcome and in 1798 his tale-telling led to a major quarrel between Southey and Coleridge which was not healed until 1799. After Southey moved to Keswick in 1803, he and his family saw Lloyd, who lived at Low Brathay near Ambleside, regularly. Lloyd’s later life was clouded by mental illness. He was briefly confined in the Quaker-run asylum The Retreat, York, and died in a sanatorium near Versailles. In his edition of Cowper (1836–1837), Southey made his final public observations on Lloyd’s tragic history: ‘[his] intellectual powers were of a very high order ... when in company with persons who were not informed of his condition, no one could descry in him the slightest appearance of a deranged mind.’

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Quaker banker and translator of Homer. Father of Charles Lloyd.

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Locker initially held a number of administrative posts in the Navy, concluding his career as private secretary to Lord Exmouth (1757–1833; DNB) during the latter’s time as commander in the Mediterranean, 1811–1814. Southey first wrote to Locker in search of information for his History of the Peninsular War (1823–1832), but the two shared many interests and the correspondence continued. Locker was the editor of the patriotic journal, the Plain Englishman (1820–1823), to which Southey contributed poems, and played an important role in developing Greenwich Naval Hospital 1819–1844.

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She married Edward Hawke Locker on 28 February 1815.

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Scottish writer. He made his reputation through his contributions to Blackwood’s Magazine from 1817 onwards and became Walter Scott’s son-in-law in 1820. He was editor of the Quarterly Review 1825–1853 and completed a monumental Life of Sir Walter Scott (1837–1838). Southey corresponded with him intermittently on professional matters.

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Senior partner in a long-established and prestigious firm of London publishers. Southey began publishing with Longman and his partners in 1799 and their association continued until his final collection, Poetical Works (1837–1838). Southey often jokingly referred to the firm as ‘the Long Men’ or ‘Our Fathers’ (since their premises were in Paternoster Row). He also nicknamed Longman ‘Artaxerxes’ (465–424 BC) and ‘the King of Persia’ because the Persian emperor had been named Longimanus by the Romans.

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Rector of Hargrave, Northamptonshire, 1805–1818, and Curate of Westwood, Wiltshire, 1825–1851. Longmire was a well-connected evangelical clergyman, the nephew of Thomas Martyn (1735–1825; DNB), Professor of Botany at Cambridge University, 1762–1825. In 1812 Longmire wrote to Southey to thank him for the moral lessons and biblical parallels that could be drawn from Thalaba the Destroyer (1801), which had strengthened his faith. Southey was surprised and amused, but replied politely.

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DNB

Barrister. Second son of John Losh. Born at Woodside, Carlisle, he was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge (BA 1786) and Lincoln’s Inn (called to the Bar 1789). He visited Paris in 1792 and on his return to England moved in a circle of metropolitan and Cambridge-based radicals and reformers that included George Dyer, William Godwin, John Horne Tooke (1736–1812; DNB), John Tweddell (1769–1799; DNB), Felix Vaughan (dates unknown), and William Wordsworth. In 1795–1796, ill-health forced his relocation to Bath, where he moved in the same circles as Southey. Losh was amongst the earliest readers of the manuscript of the first complete version of Madoc and had literary ambitions of his own, publishing an edition of Milton’s Areopagitica (1791) and a translation of Benjamin Constant’s Observations on the Strength of the Present Government in France (1797). He married Cecilia Baldwin in February 1798 and moved permanently to Newcastle at the end of the same year. In later life he was a successful lawyer, businessman and local politician.

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A family of Bristol-based Quakers and pin manufacturers. Robert Lovell (1746–1804) and his first wife Edith Bourne (1745–1782) had two sons, Joseph and Robert (Southey’s brother-in-law), and five daughters. Lovell’s second marriage to Lydia Hill (1754–1816) produced five more children. Southey was on reasonable terms with all the Lovells, but their relationship was clouded by struggles over adequate financial provision for the son and widow of Robert Lovell.

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Younger half-brother of the poet Robert Lovell. He was a commission agent and partner in the Bristol firm of Fisher, King & Lovell. In 1818 he wrote to Southey asking how to contact his (and Southey’s) nephew, Robert Lovell Jnr.

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Poet. Born in Bristol, the son of a wealthy Quaker manufacturer (initially of cabinets and later of pins), and his first wife Edith Bourne, a Quaker minister. Lovell possibly entered the manufacturing business (on his death he was described as a pin manufacturer) but was ill at ease in the commercial world. In 1794 he married Mary Fricker. His family disapproved of the match because she was not a Quaker and had worked as an actress. Their son, also named Robert, was born in 1795. Lovell died at Bristol on 3 May 1796 of a fever contracted on a trip to Salisbury and exacerbated by refusing to take medical advice before returning home. One of his final letters to his wife is in the Huntington Library, San Marino, another in Bristol Reference Library. Lovell’s father was reluctant to provide regular financial support for Mary Lovell and her child, and both became part of Southey’s extended household. Lovell and Southey were introduced by Sarah Fricker in Bristol in late 1793. Lovell was also a poet, his Bristol: A Satire appeared in 1794, and he and Southey embarked on a period of collaboration: planning two co-authored collections, only one of which was published under the pseudonyms ‘Bion’ [Southey] and ‘Moschus’ [Lovell] in late 1794. Lovell was also involved in the 1794 revisions to Southey’s Joan of Arc. The advent of Coleridge in summer–autumn 1794 seems to have led (at least temporarily) to a reorientation of literary relationships. Lovell was pushed to the margins. His contribution to The Fall of Robespierre was dropped and Coleridge was openly critical of his poetry. Lovell was, however, involved in Pantisocracy and it was through him that Southey and Coleridge were introduced to Joseph Cottle. After Lovell’s death, Southey tried — and failed — to produce a subscription edition of his poems, to raise money for his widow and child. However, Lovell’s writings were included in the Annual Anthology (1799 and 1800) and Specimens of the Later English Poets (1807). In a notice published in Literary Memoirs of Living Authors of Great Britain (1798), David Rivers described Lovell’s poetry as being ‘entitled to considerable distinction’. Southey described receiving the news of Lovell’s death as ‘the most sudden check I ever experienced’. The full extent of their relationship is difficult to gauge because of the survival of only two letters from what must have been an extensive correspondence.

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The son of Mary and Robert Lovell, his father’s early death left him with few prospects (significantly less than those of Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s children, whose paternal relations were capable of greater generosity). In 1803 the money paid by the Lovell family for his education ceased. Southey and John May tried to get Robert Lovell Junior into Christ’s Hospital. They failed. The boy was apprenticed to a London printer and effectively separated from his mother, who lived with the Southeys in Keswick. The impact of this on his character seems to have been profound. In 1836 his first cousin Sara Coleridge described his lack of social skills: ‘From nine years old he has had to shift and scramble a good deal for himself, to bear up against a hard world which would have crushed <or injured> the frame it did not render to a certain degree tough & unyielding ... [he] never had the opportunity of acquiring a taste for domestic, scarcely even for social enjoyment: we ought not to wonder that he is deficient in many qualities which can only be fostered thereby.’ Robert Lovell Junior predeceased his mother. He disappeared whilst on a European walking tour in 1836.

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From 1802, when he inherited vast estates in Cumberland and Westmoreland, one of the wealthiest and most powerful landowners in the country. A Tory, Lowther became the patron of Wordsworth, arranging for him to be given the government post of Distributor of Stamps. Southey and Lowther were on good terms, and Southey made several visits to Lowther castle.

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Educated at University of Edinburgh. He married Mary Grey on 27 April 1813 and was Minister of Kelso. He worked with John and James Ballantyne on the Edinburgh Annual Register, producing the yearly ‘Chronicle’ from late 1810. He was one of the financial guarantors of their co-partnership, along with Walter Scott. He was described as ‘highly and justly respected, and esteemed for the urbanity of his manner, his unaffected piety, and other excellent qualities’ (James Haig, A Topographical and Historical Account of the Town of Kelso (Edinburgh, 1825), p. 119).

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Clergyman. Educated at St Paul’s School, London and then at Cambridge. He was personal chaplain to Lord Bute and from 1795 Rector of Merthyr Tydfil. Maber and Southey met during a voyage to Portugal in November 1795.

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Unmarried sister of Lord Sunderlin. Southey got to know the family well when they visited the Lakes in 1812–1813.

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Antiquary. Born in Manchester, in 1808 he moved to London to practise law. He married Charlotte (d. 1867), daughter of Sir Francis Freeling, in 1821. Markland was a committed Anglican, collector of fine editions, and writer on literary history, and on antiquarian and religious subjects. He was a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, member of the Roxburghe Club, and, after retiring to Bath in 1841, an active member of the Royal Archaeological Institute and the British Archaeological Association. He corresponded very intermittently with Southey on antiquarian matters.

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Legal writer, antiquary and member of the Royal Irish Academy. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he struck up a lifelong friendship with Thomas Moore (1779–1852; DNB). He was called to the Irish Bar in 1800, but never practised, instead holding posts as examiner to the prerogative courts and as Assistant, later Chief, Librarian of the King’s Inns, Dublin. His charitable and educational activities were numerous and included playing an important part in the Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor in Ireland. In 1818 Mason founded the Irish Society for ‘promoting the scriptural education and religious instruction of the Irish-speaking population chiefly through the medium of their own language’ and he was also the moving force behind an association for the improvement of Irish prisons and prison discipline. His best-known publication was a concise account of the history of Irish common and statute law from the Anglo-Norman invasion to the reign of Charles I – Essay on the Antiquity and Constitution of Parliaments in Ireland (1820). Mason met Southey in Keswick in autumn 1812. They corresponded for some twenty years, though few of their letters survive. Mason was especially keen to solicit Southey’s support for his educational projects.

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Unitarian minister and schoolmaster. Born at Eastwood, Yorkshire, he was educated at Leeds Grammar, Hoxton Academy and Hackney College. In 1787 he converted to Unitarianism. From 1787–1792 he was assistant minister of the Old Meeting, Great Yarmouth, Norfolk. He was a foundation member of the Unitarian Society in 1791 and in 1792 was elected evening preacher at the chapel at Hackney in which Joseph Priestley preached in the mornings. In 1794 he married Priscilla Hurry, daughter of a Yarmouth timber merchant. They had ten children, of whom the fifth was the theologian Frederick Denison Maurice (1805–1872; DNB). Maurice was distantly connected by marriage to William Taylor. The latter was involved in securing a place for Henry Herbert Southey at the school Maurice ran at Normanston manor house, near the Suffolk port of Lowestoft.

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Merchant, financier and business agent. A member of a wealthy family, both his father (Joseph) and grandfather were successful merchants in Lisbon. He was educated at Newcome’s Academy, Hackney, where he was taught by George Coleridge, with whom he became lifelong friends. May went to Lisbon in 1793, in order to learn the family trade, returning to England in 1796. May married Susannah Frances Livius in 1799. The marriage produced four children. May and Southey met in Portugal in 1796. Their friendship was to last until the latter’s death. May acted as a financial adviser and agent to Southey, lending him money — including sums to finance Henry Herbert Southey’s education — and purchasing goods on his behalf. Southey reciprocated when May experienced a severe financial crisis in 1821 by lending him his life savings of £620. May visited the Southeys on several occasions and acted as godfather to Southey’s two eldest children — Margaret Edith and Edith May, the latter named in his honour. The Poet’s Pilgrimage to Waterloo (1816) was dedicated to him ‘in testimony of the highest esteem and affection’.

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A friend of Felicia Hemans, Miss Maynard lived in Clifton, Bristol. Southey had met her in his home city, where they had acquaintances in common. In 1816 she sent Southey some manuscript music.

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Clergyman. Educated at the University of Oxford, where he won the Chancellor’s Medal for Latin prose and became a great friend of John Keble (1792–1866; DNB). In 1817 he delivered the University’s Bampton Lectures, on the subject of ‘The Divine Authority of Holy Scripture’. When he met Southey in 1820, Miller was a Fellow of Worcester College, Oxford, and Curate of Bishopstone, Wiltshire. He sent Southey a copy of his work, most probably his Bampton lectures. Miller’s other writings at this time included A Christian Guide for Plain People, and Especially for the Poor (1820).

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DNB

Clergyman, poet and historian. His brilliant career at the University of Oxford included winning the Newdigate Prize in 1812 and he was elected Professor of Poetry 1821–1831. He became a Fellow of Brasenose College in 1814 and was ordained in 1816. Milman’s ecclesiastical career was equally illustrious, despite controversies over his orthodoxy prompted by his History of the Jews (1830), and he became a Canon of Westminster Abbey in 1835 and Dean of St Paul’s in 1849. Milman contributed regularly to the Quarterly Review, had many friends in literary life and continued to enjoy as much prominence as a writer as he did as a cleric. His poetry included the epic, Samor, Lord of the Bright City (1818); in later life he concentrated on history, especially his History of Latin Christianity down to the Death of Pope Nicholas V (1855).

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Educated at Edinburgh University he practised briefly as a surgeon and in later life assumed the unauthorised title of ‘Doctor’. He married Mary Russell (1750–1830), a distant and wealthy relation of the Dukes of Bedford. Their only child was the writer Mary Russell Mitford (1787–1855; DNB). Mitford’s inverate gambling, social pretensions and extravagant expenditure brought his family close to ruin on several occasions. Southey wrote to Mitford in 1812 to acknowledge receipt of copies of works by Mary Russell Mitford.

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Suffolk clergyman, who took little interest in his parochial duties but played an important role in London literary life. He was a noted editor (especially of the works of Thomas Gray), editor of the Gentlemans Magazine 1834–1850, and close friend of Samuel Rogers and Bernard Barton. In 1810 he wrote to Southey for advice about his poem, Agnes, the Indian Captive (1811).

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Member of a family of Perthshire landowners, Scottish lawyer and Judge of the Court of Session from 1829. He was a Whig and supported the Free Church when it broke away from the Church of Scotland in 1843. Moncreiff was educated at Glasgow University and Balliol College, Oxford. He and his elder brother, William Wellwood Moncreiff (c. 1775–1813), knew Southey during their time at Balliol, and James corresponded briefly with Southey in 1816.

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A former friend of Robert Burns, the widow of Thomas Skepper, a lawyer in York, and daughter of Edward Benson, a York wine merchant. She was Mary Barker’s friend, and married Basil Montagu in 1808.

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Lawyer and author, illegitimate son of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich (1718–1792; DNB) and the actress Martha Ray (d. 1779; DNB). Montague, like Southey, was a member of Gray’s Inn, and was called to the Bar in 1798. He was a friend of William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge and in 1795 Wordsworth and his sister, Dorothy, undertook the upbringing of his two-year old son, Basil (1793–1830), by his first wife who had died in childbirth in 1793. His second marriage, in 1806, was to Laura Rush (d. 1806). Like his first wife, she died in childbirth. In 1808 Montagu married his housekeeper and children’s governess, Anna Dorothea Benson (1773–1856). Montagu had three sons with his second wife, and two sons and a daughter with his third.

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A radical journalist and poet. His father was a Moravian pastor and missionary and Montgomery was educated at the Moravian school at Fulneck, near Leeds. He was the editor of the Sheffield Iris newspaper from 1794 to 1825, and was twice imprisoned in the 1790s for publishing articles critical of the authorities. He authored The Wanderer of Switzerland (1807), a poem severely criticised in the Edinburgh Review (Southey sympathised). He also wrote the anti-slavery poem The West Indies (1809) and a series of long historical epics, including Greenland (1819). Southey admired much about Montgomery’s verse (a feeling he shared with Byron), and Southey and Montgomery were occasional correspondents.

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Army officer and writer. He served in the army of the East India Company, rising to the rank of Major. After retiring back to his home county of Suffolk due to ill health, he produced the Hindu Pantheon (1810), which for over fifty years was the only authoritative book in English on the subject, and thus widely consulted. Other publications included Hindu Infanticide: an Account of the Measures Adopted for Suppressing the Practice (1811), Oriental Fragments (1834), and Suffolk Words and Phrases (1823). He was a founding member of the Royal Asiatic Society and was elected to membership of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (1796), the Royal Society (1806), and the Society of Antiquaries (1818). Moor was on good terms with Bernard Barton and Thomas Clarkson, both part of Southey’s extended circle. He corresponded with Southey in the late 1810s and early 1820s, offering him the use of the papers of his brother-in-law, Sir Augustus Simon Frazer (1776–1835; DNB), to help with Southey’s History of the Peninsular War (1823–1832).

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Irish poet, playwright, and satirist, who in later life turned to writing biography, including a life of his friend Byron, whose Whig politics he shared. As a poet Moore achieved commercial success with his Poetical Works of the Late Thomas Little (1801); subsequent volumes included Irish Melodies (1808–1834), Intercepted Letters, or, The Twopenny Post-Bag (1813), and The Fudge Family in Paris (1818). Southey’s oriental romances Thalaba and Kehama were important influences on Moore’s Lalla Rookh (1814). However, he did not hold Moore’s work in high regard and in 1807 used an Annual Review essay on the latter’s Epistles, Odes and Other Poems (1806) to accuse him of being ‘a corrupter of the public morals’.

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Writer and philanthropist. Southey and More met in October 1795, when he visited her house at Cowslip Green, just outside Bristol.

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Businessman. His friendship with Southey dated from their time as pupils at Williams’ School, Bristol. From 1810–1816, Morgan and his wife took in Samuel Taylor Coleridge and attempted to cure him of his opium addiction. When Morgan’s finances collapsed in 1813, Southey, Charles Lamb and other friends contributed to an annuity for him.

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The wife of one of Southey’s oldest friends, John James Morgan.

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An attorney in Whitehaven, who was involved in administering the complex affairs of Greta Hall, the house that Southey rented from 1803 onwards. He corresponded with Southey on business matters.

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Publisher, who inherited his business from his father, John (1737–1793; DNB). After Murray took sole control of the firm in 1803, he proved a shrewd businessman. He published everything from cookery books and cheap reprints to the works of Byron, Scott, Crabbe and Jane Austen. After he purchased the business and premises at 50 Albermarle Street of William Miller (1769–1844; DNB) in 1812, he was at the centre of London literary life. In 1809 Murray launched the Quarterly Review, to which Southey became a contributor, and the two began to correspond regularly. Murray also published some of Southey’s other works, most importantly the Life of Nelson (1813), which developed from an article in the Quarterly Review.

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Philologist, clergyman and reviewer. From 1779–1783 Nares was tutor to Charles Watkin Williams Wynn and his older brother, Watkin. He was Usher at Westminster School from 1786–1788, where he continued his tutoring of the Wynn boys and where he undoubtedly met Charles Wynn’s friend Southey. In 1793 Nares was the founder-editor of the pro-government review the British Critic.

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A painter who travelled in the Netherlands with Southey and his family in 1815 and who illustrated The Poet’s Pilgrimage to Waterloo (1816). Best known for his miniatures, Nash painted Southey, and a double portrait of Edith May Southey and Sara Coleridge, in 1820.

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Clergyman and writer. He was the son of James Neale (c. 1760–1814), a china manufacturer and member of the London Missionary Society. Educated at St John’s, Cambridge, Cornelius was appointed to a curacy in Leicestershire after his ordination. His Mustapha: A Tragedy (1814) was dedicated to Southey.

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Editor and owner of the Gentleman’s Magazine, 1792–1826. Printer, author and noted antiquarian. Among his many works was Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century (1812–1815).

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Youngest son of the Leicestershire landowner Gerard Noel Edwards (afterwards Noel; 1759–1838; Hist P), MP for Maidstone 1784–1788 and Rutland 1788–1808, 1814–1838. Leland Noel took holy orders and became Vicar of Chipping Campden 1824–1832 and then Rector of Exton 1832–1870, a living held by his family. With Charles Edward Kennaway, he visited Southey in Keswick in October 1820, dining at Greta Hall and going on mountain walks with the Poet Laureate.

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Writer. Born in Norwich, her father was the physician James Alderson (d. 1825). Brought up in progressive, Unitarian circles, she published poetry in the radical Norwich periodical, The Cabinet, in 1794. In 1798 she married the painter, John Opie (1761–1807; DNB) and moved to London, only returning to Norwich on his death in 1807. Opie contributed poems to Southey’s Annual Anthology (1799) and (1800) and became a prolific novelist after the success of Father and Daughter (1801). In 1825 she converted to Quakerism and devoted the rest of her life to charitable works.

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Archivist, historian, and contributor to both the Edinburgh Review and the Quarterly Review. Although he spent his early career in a solicitor’s office and later qualified for the Bar, Palgrave's historical and antiquarian interests won out. He was appointed a Sub-Commissioner of the Record Commission in 1822 and in the following year changed his name and converted from Judaism to Anglicanism on his marriage to Elizabeth (1799–1852), a daughter of Dawson Turner. He published widely on historical subjects and also edited numerous volumes of historical documents. In 1838 he became the executive head of the newly established Public Record Office, a post he held until his death. He was an occasional correspondent of Southey’s.

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A close friend of Southey’s aunt, Elizabeth Tyler. Her father was John Palmer (1702/3–1788), proprietor of the Theatre Royal, Bath, and her only brother the theatre proprietor and postal reformer John Palmer (1742–1818; DNB).

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Physician. He was educated at the Warrington Academy and Edinburgh and settled in Bath in November 1779. He developed a large practice and participated in local scientific and agricultural societies. His An Inquiry into the Symptoms and Causes of the Syncope Anginosa Commonly Called Angina Pectoris (1799) was the first monograph on the pathology of angina pectoris. Parry was a friend of Edward Jenner (1749–1823; DNB), and dedicatee of the latter’s book on vaccination. His celebrity patients included Edmund Burke (1729/30–1797; DNB). He was the father of Charles Henry Parry (1779–1860; DNB), who was a companion of Coleridge on his visit to the Harz Mountains in 1799. Parry and Southey undoubtedly knew each other via mutual friends in Bath. They corresponded in 1798 about a print of Joan of Arc.

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Master of Balliol College, Oxford 1798–1819.

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Musician and composer. He held the post of Master of the King’s Music from 1786 until his death. As Poet Laureate, Southey sent him his New Year’s Odes to set to music. The music composed by Parsons for Southey’s Odes was not performed and has not survived.

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Wife of Colonel and later Lieutenant-General William Peachy, from a family resident in Bishops Lydeard, Somerset, where she continued to spend winters after her marriage, Southey visiting on at least one occasion. In summer, Peachy was fond of rowing her boat on Derwentwater, near her home on Derwent Isle. Southey wrote an epitaph for her when she died, recalling her gliding across the lake in her skiff. Through Peachy, Southey was introduced to her uncle Sir Charles Malet (1752–1815) and his family.

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The second wife of William Peachy, whom she married in 1812. She was the widow of James Henry of Jamaica.

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Hist P

A Keswick resident, MP for Yarmouth (1797–1802) and Taunton (1826–30). An officer in the Wiltshire militia and a convivial host at his home in Keswick and later on Derwent Isle, Derwentwater. Southey was very fond of Peachy’s wife, Emma Frances Charter, for whom he wrote a poetic epitaph when she died in 1809. His third daughter, Emma (February 1808–May 1809), was named after her. Others in the Peachy circle who visited the Lakes were his sister-in-law Elizabeth Charter and her uncle Sir Charles Malet (1752–1815) and his family, and Peachy’s second wife, a widow, Mrs James Henry.

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Southey lodged with Peacock and his wife in Newington Butts in 1797. Peacock was involved in the book trade, possibly as a travelling salesman. The Peacocks were unhappily married and later in life Mrs Peacock was central in having her husband committed to a private asylum. On at least two occasions, Peacock wrote to Southey from his ‘place of confinement’ and in 1816 Southey made enquiries about his case.

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Lawyer. Eldest son of Revd Henry and Bella Peckwell. In 1811, he assumed his mother’s surname. Educated Westminster (adm. 1785) and Christ Church, Oxford (matric. 1792, BA 1796, MA 1799). Admitted to Lincoln’s Inn 1795, called to the Bar 1801; Serjeant-at-Law 1809. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Bengal, 1821; knighted 1822. Author of Cases on Controverted Elections in the Second Parliament of the United Kingdom (1805–1806). He never married. Peckwell was a friend of Southey’s during his time at Westminster School and Oxford.

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DNB, Hist P

Leading politician in the first half of the nineteenth century. He served as Chief Secretary for Ireland 1812–1818, Home Secretary 1822–1827, 1828–1830 and Prime Minister 1834–1835, 1841–1846. Peel was always a controversial figure, especially when he changed tack and supported Catholic Emancipation in 1829 and the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1845–1846. Both decisions alienated his conservative followers and he split the Tory Party on the latter occasion. Southey had long admired Peel and felt betrayed over his support for Catholic Emancipation; but relations were restored sufficiently for Peel to offer Southey a Baronetcy in 1835 and a further government pension of £300 p.a.

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A fellow of Christ Church, Oxford and from 1790 Lees Reader in Anatomy. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1795 and was knighted in 1799.

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Daughter of a Birmingham manufacturer, she married Charles Lloyd on 24 April 1799. They moved to Old Brathay, near Ambleside, in 1800. They had nine children and a notably happy family life, despite Charles Lloyd’s bouts of mental instability. Thomas De Quincey claimed that ‘as a wife and mother’ Sophia was ‘unsurpassed’.

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Chancellor of the Exchequer 1807–1812, and Prime Minister 1809–1812. Southey admired Perceval’s opposition to Catholic Emancipation and Perceval was reported to be impressed by Southey’s attacks on Methodism. Perceval’s assassination in 1812 deeply shocked Southey, as it seemed to reveal popular sympathy with Perceval’s killer and to weaken the government’s hostility to Catholic Emancipation.

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Lawyer. Educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford (matric. 1793, BA 1797, BCL 1800, DCL 1804). He won prizes at Christ Church for Latin verse (1793) and prose (1798), and the University English essay prize (1798) for his dissertation, ‘Chivalry’. Southey and Phillimore met at Westminster School, and their friendship lasted until the end of Southey’s time at Oxford. When Southey returned to Oxford in 1820 to receive an honorary DCL, Phillimore, by then Regius Professor of Civil Law, participated in the degree ceremony. Phillimore was not very tall, hence his nickname ‘little Joe’.

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Author and publisher, initially in Leicester and from 1795 in London. In 1796 he founded the progressive Monthly Magazine, employing firstly John Aikin and from 1806 George Gregory as its editor. A radical and republican, Phillips himself wrote anti-government articles for the periodical under the signature ‘Common Sense’. Phillips’s business prospered in the first decade of the nineteenth century. In 1807 he was elected a sheriff of London and in 1808 he was knighted. His fortunes declined in the 1810s and he retired to Brighton in 1823, dying there in 1840. Southey contributed poems and letters to the Monthly Magazine from 1796 and thus had a professional relationship with Phillips. However, he did not have a high opinion of him. In 1812 he cautioned that the publisher was ‘one of the most accomplished rogues in his majestys dominions’. Southey also shared Coleridge’s view of Phillips’s vegetarianism: ‘whatever might be thought of innate Ideas, there could be no doubt to a man who had seen Phillips of the existence of innate Beef.’

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Anglican cleric and controversialist. A native of Bridgwater, Somerset, Phillpotts was educated at Gloucester Cathedral School and Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He occupied a series of increasingly prestigious church appointments in Durham and its environs, and in 1830 became Bishop of Exeter. Phillpotts was an outspoken supporter of the Tories and wrote to Southey in 1819, enclosing some of his political pamphlets. But he was equally controversial on doctrinal matters, denouncing both evangelicals and Tractarians. His refusal to appoint George Cornelius Gorham (1787–1857) to a living in Devon in 1847, because Phillpotts felt Gorham’s views on the sacrament of baptism were opposed to Anglican doctrine, produced a legal dispute that was only resolved by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council and led to an important group of Anglicans defecting to the Catholic Church at this lay interference in Church matters.

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One of the ‘Ladies of Llangollen’. A member of an Anglo-Irish family, in 1780 she set up home with Eleanor Butler at Plas Newydd on the outskirts of Llangollen, a major staging post on the route from England to Ireland. Their relationship intrigued their peers and has continued to attract speculation. Although Ponsonby and Butler lived a life of retirement, simplicity and self-improvement, they received many guests – both admirers and tourists. They were visited by Southey in 1811.

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Tanner and farmer of Nether Stowey in Somerset. He met Southey and Coleridge during their walking tour of 1794 and became a friend of both and a crucial financial support to Coleridge. Poole helped untangle the financial difficulties left by Coleridge’s failed periodical, The Watchman, found a house at Nether Stowey for Coleridge’s family in 1797 and provided much financial assistance for them while Coleridge was in Germany in 1798–1799. Poole was the central figure in reconciling Coleridge and Southey in August 1799. Later, he assisted Rickman in compiling a report on the state of the poor. Southey last met Poole on his tour of the West Country in 1837.

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Printer, bookseller and stationer, based at various addresses in central London. Before his move to the metropolis, he had been apprenticed to the Bristol printer Nathaniel Biggs. He printed several of Southey’s works, including The History of Brazil (1810–1819). Southey’s nephew, Robert Lovell, was apprenticed to him.

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Writer and actor. In 1803 he sent Southey a copy of his Gleanings, which contained a poem in praise of Southey’s popular ballad ‘Mary’.

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Politician and writer. Educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge. In the mid 1790s, Carysfort developed an interest in Southey’s poetry, communicating with him through his cousin and Southey’s patron Charles Wynn. Southey arranged for Carysfort to be sent copies of his books, though any letters he wrote to the peer have not survived. Carysfort’s critiques of ‘The Retrospect’ and Madoc are in National Library of Wales, NLW MS 4819. Carysfort’s own Dramatic and Narrative Poems were published in 1810.

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Naval officer, eldest son of John Joshua Proby, 1st Earl of Carysfort. He was made a captain in 1798 when only 19, probably because of his political connections.

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Lexicographer, grammarian, editor, antiquarian and poet. The son of John Owen, he adopted the surname Pughe in 1806 after inheriting property from a relative. A leading member of the Society of Gwyneddigion and the Society of the Cymmrodorion, his publications included: The Heroic Elegies of Llywarch Hen (1792), The Myvyrian Archaiology (1801, 1807) and The Cambrian Biography (1803). In 1796–1797, Southey and Pughe engaged in a (pseudonymous) debate about the Welsh language in the pages of the Monthly Magazine. Later in 1797, Southey consulted Pughe about details for his Welsh-American poem Madoc. Pughe susbsequently became one of the principal disciples of the self-proclaimed prophet Joanna Southcott.

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Publisher and bookseller. He was born at Geli-gron, Wales, eldest brother of Thomas Rees, Unitarian minister and writer on theological history. Owen Rees migrated to Bristol where he became a bookseller. He later moved to London and in 1797 was taken into partnership by the publisher Thomas Norton Longman. From 1799 Longman and Rees became Southey’s main publishers. Rees retired from the business in early 1837.

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Unitarian minister and writer on theological history. He was the younger brother of Owen Rees. Southey corresponded with him in 1809 over the Annual Review, which Rees edited for that year.

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Physician. A native of Hadleigh, Suffolk, he became acquainted with Henry Herbert Southey while studying under the Norwich surgeon Philip Meadows Martineau in 1796–1800. He proceeded to Edinburgh University in 1800–1803, a move that probably inspired Henry Herbert Southey’s decision to attend Edinburgh. After a prolonged Continental tour in 1805–1806, he set up practice in Norwich.

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The daughter of the Unitarian hymn-writer, minister and manufacturer John Taylor (1750–1826; DNB) and his wife Susanna (1755–1823; DNB). She married Reeve in 1807. Of their three children, only one survived infancy: Henry Reeve (1813–1895; DNB), later editor of the Edinburgh Review.

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A Bristol friend of Southey’s; probably the younger brother of the insurance broker William Reid (b. 1774). Sam Reid had intended to pursue a career as a Unitarian minister, but abandoned it after a crisis of faith. In 1806 he moved to Liverpool, where he worked as a private tutor.

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Statistician. Only son of Thomas Rickman, vicar of Newburn, Northumberland. Educated at Guildford Grammar School (1781–1785) and Oxford (matric. Magdalen Hall, 1788, and migrated to Lincoln College, BA 1792). After graduation he joined his father, who had retired to live in Christchurch, Hampshire. Rickman worked as a private tutor and read widely in economics. He edited the Commercial, Agricultural and Manufacturer’s Magazine (until 1801). In 1796 he wrote a private paper in which he argued for the benefits to the nation of a census. George Rose, MP for Christchurch, showed this to the politician Charles Abbot and in March 1801 the latter steered the census bill into law. Rickman was responsible for the first four censuses (1801, 1811, 1821 and 1831) and paved the way for the fifth (1841). In 1801 he became Abbot’s personal secretary whilst the latter was Chief Secretary for Ireland. On Abbot’s election to the post of Speaker of the House of Commons, Rickman became the Speaker’s Secretary. In 1820 he became Clerk Assistant to the Commons with a salary of £2500 per year. He married Susannah Postlethwaite (d. 1836) in 1805. Rickman’s friendship with Southey began at Burton in 1797 and endured for the rest of their lives. Shortly after their first meeting, Southey described him as ‘rough, coarse, well informed on all subjects, believing nothing, jacobinical’. Later in life Rickman became high Tory, anti-Malthusian and anti-semitic. He regularly provided ideas and information (especially statistics) for Southey’s articles in the Quarterly Review and authored the majority of Southey’s April 1818 Quarterly essay on the Poor Laws. Southey and Rickman planned to collaborate on a sequel to the Colloquies (1829) but this was prevented by John Murray’s (1778–1843) financial problems.

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Third child and second son of Edward Roberts. A delicate child, he showed a precocious interest in antiquities and amassed a coin collection that was said to be worth 4,000 guineas. He was a student at Christ Church, Oxford, 1805–1808, and contributed to the Gentlemans Magazine and Quarterly Review, especially on numismatics. After his early death, Grosvenor Bedford, who was his cousin, compiled a Memoir (1814), which was, unsurprisingly, favourably reviewed by Southey in the Quarterly Review. Southey also wrote a poem in memory of Roberts.

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Chief Clerk of the Pells; father of Barré Charles Roberts. He was related to the Bedfords. Grosvenor Bedford published an edition of Barré Charles’s papers and a memoir in 1814. Southey corresponded with Edward Roberts at this time.

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A Bristol writer who died aged nineteen. Southey helped promote an edition of his letters and poems in 1811.

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London booksellers and publishers. George Robinson (1736–1801; DNB) and his brothers James Robinson (d. 1803/4; DNB), John Robinson (1753–1813; DNB), and possibly Henry Robinson (d. in or after 1813; DNB).

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DNB

The friend of almost every literary man of his day, first met Southey at a dinner at Dr Aikin’s in March 1808. Robinson had gone to Spain in 1808 as a special war correspondent of The Times, and through the connections he made at that time he was able to help Southey find materials he needed for the Edinburgh Annual Register.

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DNB

Poet and banker. His writings included The Pleasures of Memory (1792), ‘Columbus’ (1810), ‘Jacqueline’ (1814) and Italy (1822 and 1828). A wealthy, metropolitan Dissenter, Rogers was exceptionally well connected and had many acquaintances in common with Southey. They were on social terms, meeting occasionally and corresponding intermittently. They shared an interest in assisting others, a trait Southey drew on in 1816 when he asked Rogers to help the young poet Herbert Knowles.

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Lawyer, banker and leading public figure in his native Liverpool, which he represented in Parliament 1806–1807. Roscoe was a Unitarian and a radical. He was also an expert on Italian history and literature and collected a notable library and series of Italian paintings, as well as writing The Life of Lorenzo de’ Medici (1796). He corresponded with Southey in 1798 on the whereabouts of William Gilbert.

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Bristol-based printer. Best known for printing the Bristol Mercury.

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Lawyer and poet; only son of William Rough. Educated Westminster (adm. 1786, King’s Scholar 1789) and Trinity College, Cambridge (matric. 1792, BA 1796, MA 1799), he entered Gray’s Inn in 1796, and was called to the Bar at the Inner Temple in 1801. He married Harriet (1778–c. 1820), an illegitimate daughter of John Wilkes (1725–1797; DNB). He served in the judiciary in Demerara and Essequibo and later Ceylon and was knighted in 1837. His literary works included Lorenzo di Medici (1797), The Conspiracy of Gowrie (1800), and Lines on the Death of Sir Ralph Abercromby (1800). He was also a contributor to the Gentleman’s Magazine and the Monthly Magazine. Rough and Southey were friends whilst at Westminster School and remained in contact in later life. He was rumoured to have contributed to The Flagellant (1792).

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Liverpool poet, journalist and anti-slavery campaigner, blinded in 1773 while assisting suffering Africans on board a slave ship. Southey met him in 1808.

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Anglican clergyman. He held a long series of posts, rising to be Archdeacon of Coventry in 1861, and wrote widely on Church matters and social issues. His first wife, Elizabeth Poole (d. 1853), was the niece of Southey’s old friend from Somerset, Thomas Poole, and was herself a well-known writer on women’s issues, including On Female Improvement (1836).

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The widow of a Bristol accountant and Southey’s landlady in College Street, Bristol in 1795. Her daughter married James Jennings.

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A poet and scholar who resided in Norwich and was a close friend of William Taylor’s. His collection of Poems (1792) influenced Southey’s own work.

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Poet and novelist. Scott and Southey first met in October 1805, when their mutual interest in chivalric romances brought them together. Scott reviewed Southey’s Amadis of Gaul in the Annual Review, and The Chronicle of the Cid and The Curse of Kehama in the Quarterly Review, while Southey reviewed Scott’s Sir Tristram in the Annual. Privately envious of the enormous sales Scott achieved with his own chivalric poems, Southey was nevertheless a ready correspondent, persuading Scott of Wordsworth’s claims to greatness. For his part Scott, as his fame and influence increased, did not forget Southey: he arranged for Southey to write for the Edinburgh Review in 1807, and when Southey declined, disapproving of its anti-war politics and personal attacks on authors, helped him to a position reviewing for the new journal set up to counter the Edinburgh – the Quarterly. Scott also sought preferment for Southey via his connections in government: Canning was approached to see whether a diplomatic place might be found; Melville was requested to grant the post of Historiographer Royal. Southey also sought Scott’s help as he pursued the sinecure of Steward of the Derwentwater estates (which had passed to the Crown). None of these attempts having succeeded, Scott recommended in 1813 that Southey should be offered the Laureateship, after refusing it himself. Scott had also been influential behind the scenes in securing Southey the invitation from the Ballantynes’ publishing house (in which he was, unbeknownst to Southey, a silent partner) to write the historical section of the Edinburgh Annual Register (1808–1811). Here Scott was disingenuous: Southey was offered a share in the venture and so deferred payments owing to him to take up the offer; Scott, however, did not reveal his own financial involvement in the firm even when, as it faced insolvency in 1813, he promised to help Southey retrieve the monies owed him.

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Senhouse, whose acquaintance Southey made in 1807, was a landed gentleman from a family enriched by the exploitation of coal and iron from their estate along the Cumbrian coast, and by their development of Maryport as a commercial harbour from which these minerals were exported. Senhouse made his excellent library available to Southey; there was much family visiting over the years in both Netherhall and Greta Hall. Senhouse accompanied Southey on his tours in Europe in 1817 and 1838.

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The only child of George and Barbara Seton and a cousin of Agnes (1764–1852; DNB) and Mary (1763–1852; DNB) Berry, friends of Horace Walpole (1717–1797; DNB). In 1807, she married the Revd James Bannister, Rector of Iddesleigh. Her date of death is unknown, but she is said to have been living in Honiton, Devon in 1838. Seton met Southey during his second visit to Portugal in 1800–1801, and corresponded with him until 1810. She was on very good terms with both Southey and his wife.

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A Worcestershire family consisting of four brothers and three sisters. The death of Southey’s close friend Edmund Seward in 1795 was followed by that of his brother John (educated at St John’s College, Cambridge, MB 1795, and physician to the Worcester infirmary) in December 1797. Some time afterwards, the eldest brother, William (a lawyer, based in Ledbury, Herefordshire) shot himself. A fourth brother, whose name Southey does not record, was a ‘mere farmer’ of a ‘methodistical turn’. Of the sisters, one married Mr Severn (a clergyman) and two remained unmarried. In the mid 1790s, Southey was on good terms with most — if not all — of the siblings and corresponded with at least Edmund and one of the Seward sisters.

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DNB

The ‘swan of Lichfield’– a poet, encouraged in youth by Erasmus Darwin (1731–1802; DNB). Her writings included Poems on Subjects Chiefly Devotional (1760), Elegy on Captain Cook (1780), Monody on Major Andre (1781) and Louisa: A Poetic Novel (1784). Walter Scott edited her Poetical Works for Ballantyne in 1810; her voluminous correspondence was published in 1811. Seward was quick to recognise Southey as a poet to be watched: her 1797 ‘Philippic on a Modern Epic’ condemned the ‘Baneful’ politics of his Joan of Arc, but simultaneously heralded it as the work of ‘sun-born Genius’. She continued to follow Southey’s career with some interest. In 1802 she wrote to the Poetical Register, lauding him as a ‘genuine Poet’, though cautioning the reader against adopting ‘his capricious systems’. She read Madoc shortly after its 1805 publication and published a lengthy defence of it in the Gentleman’s Magazine in 1808. When Southey got wind (via a letter sent by Seward to Charles Lloyd) of her high opinion, he wrote to her. This initiated a correspondence that lasted until Seward’s death and that led to their one meeting in Lichfield in summer 1808. Late in life, Southey provided a comic account of the ‘jubilant but appalling solemnity’ of this encounter. However, his attitude to Seward was more ambivalent than this suggests. He was keenly aware of – and attentive to – her place in literary history, noting that she ‘was not so much over-rated at one time, as she has been since unduly depreciated’ (Poetical Works, 10 vols (London, 1837–1838), V, pp. xv–xviii).

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The youngest son of John Seward of Sapey, Worcestershire. Educated at Balliol College, Oxford (matric. 1789, BA 1793). Seward was one of Southey’s closest friends at Oxford, and an important influence on him. An early enthusiast for Pantisocracy, Seward later withdrew from the scheme and felt himself partly to blame for what he described as ‘having contrived to bring [Southey] ... into ... a calamitous & ruinous ... adventure, from which I might at first perhaps have diverted him’. Southey was deeply shocked by Seward’s death from a ‘fever’, and later addressed his elegy ‘To the Dead Friend’ to him. In a letter to James Montgomery, 6 May 1811, Southey recalled him as ‘an admirable man in all things, whose only fault was that he was too humble ... In his company my religious instincts were strengthened ... Sick of the college-chapel & of the church, we tried the meeting house, — & there we were disgusted too. Seward left College, meaning to take orders; — I who had the same destination, became a Deist after he left me’.

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DNB, Hist P

Businessman, Dissenter, radical and writer, but most famous for his conversational powers – hence his nickname ‘Conversation’ Sharp. He was born in Newfoundland, the son of the elder Richard Sharp, an army officer. But the family soon returned to England and Sharp took over his grandfather’s hat-making business, later moving into the West India trade. He was a member of various radical organisations in the 1790s and Whig MP for Castle Rising 1806–1812 and Portarlington 1816–1819. Sharp’s only major publication was the anonymous Letters and Essays in Poetry and Prose (1834), but he was a friend and adviser to many literary men. He encouraged Southey to proceed with The Curse of Kehama (1810).

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Shelley’s first wife. They eloped and married in 1811. They had two children, but Shelley left her in 1814. She committed suicide two years later.

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Eldest son of the wealthy Sussex landowner, baronet and MP, Sir Timothy Shelley (1753–1844). He became a published poet and novelist while still at Eton and was expelled from University College, Oxford, in March 1811 for writing The Necessity of Atheism (1811). In August 1811 he eloped with, and married, Harriet Westbrook (1795–1816), causing a temporary breakdown in relations with his family. Shelley admired some of Southey’s poetry, especially Thalaba the Destroyer (1801) and The Curse of Kehama (1810), and engaged in a number of intense conversations with the older man while Shelley lodged in Keswick in 1811–1812. Southey saw Shelley as a ‘ghost’ of his own past, who would grow out of his heterodox opinions. He directed Shelley to the work of the philosopher George Berkeley (1685–1743; DNB), as an antidote to atheism, thus profoundly influencing Shelley’s intellectual development. Shelley left suddenly for Ireland in February 1812 and the two men did not meet again. However, this was not the end of their relationship. Southey took an increasingly hostile view of Shelley’s politics and his abandonment of his first wife. Shelley (erroneously) believed that Southey had attacked him in the Quarterly Review in 1820, leading to an acrimonious exchange of letters.

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Master of the King’s Music 1817–1829. Shield was born near Gateshead and made a name as a violinist in Newcastle, before moving to London, where he became principal violinist at Covent Garden in 1773 and later ‘house composer’ for the theatre. Shield made use of Northumbrian folk tunes, and wrote light operas and music for string quartets and trios. He was also a friend of Joseph Haydn (1732–1809; DNB). Southey had met Shield socially in 1808 and regarded his musical talents with respect, in contrast to his contempt for Shield’s predecessor, Sir William Parsons. This made him more willing to co-operate with Shield over the New Year’s Odes they were required to write and set to music, as Poet Laureate and Master of the King’s Music.

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Wife of Thomas Smith and a noted collector of autographs and manuscripts.

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Wife of Major-General John Smith (1754–1837; DNB); grandmother of Charlotte-Julia Jephson. She visited the Lakes, including Keswick, in 1812.

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Country gentleman and JP, of Unitarian and liberal views and literary and scientific interests. He was born in Cirencester, and later owned estates at Bownham House, near Minchinhampton, Gloucestshire and at Easton Grey, near Malmesbury, Wiltshire. He trained as a barrister but a speech impediment meant that he never practiced. He was known as the ‘Macenas of his neighbourhood’ for his patronage of men of letters and his philanthropy. He had a wide circle of friends in public life, including the economist David Ricardo (1772–1823; DNB) and John Whishaw (c. 1764–1840), ‘the Pope of Holland House’. Smith was married to Elizabeth Chandler, a fellow Unitarian. She was a noted collector of autographs and books. They had at least one child, a daughter, who was painted by James Northcote (1746–1831; DNB) in 1803. Southey was on very good terms with the Smiths, whom he probably knew through Charles Danvers. Southey visited them at Bownham in 1803, where he made use of their extensive library. He also sought out new items for Elizabeth Smith’s autograph collection. These included a MS of Coleridge’s then unpublished ‘Kubla Khan’, now British Library Add MS 50847, sent by Southey in February 1804. In turn, Thomas Smith subscribed to the Southey-Cottle edition of Thomas Chatterton (1752–1770; DNB) and lent Southey books.

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A wealthy Quaker merchant who lived at Stockwell Park, Surrey, with his second wife, Anne Reynolds (dates unknown) of Carshalton. The Smiths were friends of Grosvenor Charles Bedford and Duppa.

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DNB, Hist P

Politician. He was the son of Samuel Smith (1728–1798), a wealthy wholesale grocer and Dissenter. William Smith’s business activities were not successful, but his family’s money subsidized his lengthy political career – he was MP for Sudbury 1784–1790 and 1796–1802, Camelford 1791– 1796 and Norwich 1802–1806, 1807–1830. Smith was a long-standing supporter of Parliamentary reform, religious equality and the abolition of the slave trade. He was also an early supporter of the French Revolution, an enthusiastic Whig from the early 1790s and a convert to Unitarianism. These views condemned him to the backbenches and he never held office. He was, though, a regular contributor to debates on a wide range of subjects. Some MPs found his contributions rather too regular, though, and his sententious style did not always command the House of Commons’ respect. When he denounced Southey in a debate on the 14 March 1817 for changing his views on political reform, Southey defended himself with A Letter to William Smith, Esq., M.P. (1817) and Smith decided not to prolong the exchange. His voice continued to be heard regularly in the Commons, though.

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Author, draughtsman and lithographic printmaker from Birmingham. He was a Unitarian and supporter of a variety of radical causes, and in 1818 sent Southey his proposed set of illustrations for Thalaba the Destroyer (1801). Southey agreed to try and promote the work, and endeavoured to persuade his friends to subscribe to the publication of Smith’s work, which Longman brought out later in 1818.

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Historian and poet. Born in Liverpool, he was educated at Eton College and Peterhouse, Cambridge. His appointment as Regius Professor of Modern History at Cambridge in 1807 was controversial and attributed to patronage by the Holland House set. He wrote poetry – publishing English Lyrics in 1807 – and took an interest in contemporary poets, including Henry Kirke White, whom he knew during the latter’s time at university. Smyth’s verse epitaph to White, which also praised Southey, was inscribed on a memorial to White in All Saints’ Church, Cambridge. Smyth and Southey corresponded about this monument in 1819–1820.

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A Devon maidservant and upholsterer who in 1801 began to publish accounts of the prophetic visions she had been experiencing since 1792. Although the Devon clergy proved uninterested in her experiences, her publication The Strange Effects of Faith; with Remarkable Prophecies (Made in 1792) (1801–2) brought her to the attention of followers of Richard Brothers, including Southey’s acquaintance William Sharp. Transferring their allegiance to Southcott, these Brotherites brought her to London, where they and a number of women converts enabled Southcott to publish her prophecies of a coming millennium in England, in numerous pamphlets – many of them bought and collated by Southey in the course of his work on Letters from England, then the best-researched and most detailed account to have been published. Southcott also embarked on a preaching tour and attracted many thousands of followers, whom she confirmed as adherents by issuing with seals, bearing her symbol and signature and the believer’s. Many of her followers were women, for Southcott empowered the female, suggesting that she herself fulfilled the predictions in Genesis 3, that the woman’s seed shall bruise the serpent’s head, and Revelation 12, that the woman clothed in the sun will precipitate a millennium. Southey’s sceptical distrust of Southcott and her movement came to a head in 1814, when she announced that she, a virgin of sixty-four, was pregnant with Shiloh, the returning saviour. She died, without issue, on 27 December, although William Sharp believed that her body might only be in a trance and be resuscitated and the Shiloh discovered. She left behind her a ‘great box’, made by Sharp, containing sealed prophecies, to be opened by the bishops of the Church of England.

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Fifth child of Robert and Edith Southey. In March 1839 she married her cousin, Herbert Hill, Junior (1810–1892), second son of Herbert and Catherine Hill. They had nine children.

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The last, unexpected, child of Robert and Edith Southey, and their only surviving son, he was always known as ‘Cuthbert’ to his family. He was born on 24 February 1819 and was indulged by his parents and older sisters. He was mainly educated at home. In 1836–1837 he accompanied his father on a lengthy trip to the West Country, and, in 1838, was one of the party on Southey’s final foreign journey, to France. Southey raised the money to send him to Queen’s College, Oxford (1837–1841), but Cuthbert did not display the precocious intellectual talent of his elder brother, Herbert. Cuthbert entered the Church and pursued a solid, if unspectacular, career, including terms as Vicar of Ardleigh 1851–1855, Kingsbury Episcopi 1855–1879, St James’s, Dudley 1879–1885 and Askham 1885–1888. He was married three times: to Christina Maclachlan (1819–1851) in 1842; to Henrietta Nunn (b. 1824) in 1853; and to Justina Davies (b. 1841) in 1871. Cuthbert was deeply opposed to Southey’s marriage to Caroline Bowles and edited one of the rival posthumous versions of Southey’s letters, Life and Correspondence (1849–1850). Cuthbert was embarrassed by many of his father’s views, including his religious unorthodoxy, enthusiasm for wine and virulent condemnation of some public figures. All of these aspects of Southey’s life were suppressed or explained away in Cuthbert’s edition.

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Southey’s oldest surviving daughter, friend of Dora Wordsworth (1804–1847). Edith May married John Wood Warter (1806–1878) in 1834.

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Southey’s youngest brother, he spent much of his childhood in the household of Elizabeth Tyler. Southey was much preoccupied with arranging Edward’s education, though plans to send him to St Paul’s School did not work out. It is not certain where he was educated. Southey despaired, noting ‘I never saw a lad with a better capacity or with habits more compleatly bad’. Edward was to lead an increasingly rackety, disreputable life, trying his hand at being a sailor, soldier and, eventually, a provincial actor.

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Physician. Southey’s younger brother. With the help of his uncle Herbert Hill, Southey provided money for Henry Herbert’s education at Norwich and Edinburgh. His concerns about his younger brother’s lack of application proved — eventually — to be ill-founded, and in later life the two enjoyed a close friendship. Henry graduated MD on 24 June 1806, producing, with Southey’s help, a dissertation on the origins and course of syphilis which suggested an American origin for the disease. Southey also helped Henry’s finances by procuring him reviewing work in the Annual Review. Henry travelled to Portugal in 1807, returning before its conquest by France at end of the year. He married Mary Sealy (1784–1811), the daughter of a wealthy Lisbon merchant, in 1809. In 1815 he married for a second time, his bride being Louisa Gonne. In his later years Henry became a successful London doctor, with premises in Harley Street and an appointment as physician in ordinary to King George IV.

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Southey’s first son, a boy of great intellectual promise.

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The eldest brother of Southey’s father, who lived at Taunton, Somerset. His work as a lawyer led to him accumulating a substantial fortune of £100,000. Although he was unmarried, he refused to help either Robert Southey Senior, thus ensuring the latter’s imprisonment for debt in 1792, or his nephews, to whom he left nothing in his Will. Southey visited his uncle in 1802, describing his miserly existence to John May. In 1806, he recorded that his uncle ‘had thanked God upon his death bed that he had cut me off’. Southey retaliated by writing a poem attacking the deceased.

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Sixth child of Robert and Edith Southey. She did not marry and in her later years lived at Lairthwaite Cottage in Keswick with her aunt, Mary Lovell.

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Daughter of Southey’s old Lisbon friends, the Gonnes, and second wife of Henry Herbert Southey. They married on 21 August 1815. Louisa died giving birth to their tenth child.

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Southey’s mother. Born Margaret Hill, she married Robert Southey Senior in 1772. The marriage produced nine children, of whom five died young. She was dominated by her older half-sister, Elizabeth Tyler, with whom Southey spent a great deal of his childhood. After the bankruptcy and death of her husband in 1792, Margaret moved to Bath, running a boarding house in Westgate Buildings. Her continued financial difficulties — possibly exacerbated by the extravagance of her half-sister — caused Southey great anxiety. Margaret died on 5 January 1802 after a long illness.

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Eldest child of Tom Southey and his wife Sarah. Born 7 March 1811.

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The first-born child of Robert and Edith Southey, who both doted on her. She died of hydrocephalus in August 1803.

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Southey’s paternal aunt, also referred to as ‘Aunt Maria’. Whereas Southey was on poor terms with his surviving paternal uncles, John and Thomas, he was on excellent terms with their sister. Mary Southey lived in Taunton, Somerset. After 1803 she provided important links between her nephew and his regional roots, and Southey stayed with her on his visits to the West Country. Mary, like her nephews, suffered from her two brothers’ lack of familial feeling. She was not included in either of their wills, but did eventually manage to obtain some property from the estate of Thomas.

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Tom Southey’s second child. Born 12 November 1812.

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Daughter of Southey’s old Lisbon acquaintance, Richard Sealy (c. 1752–1821). She married Henry Herbert Southey in 1809.

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Son of Tom and Sarah; born 14 December 1813, died 20 July 1828.

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Southey’s father. A failed Bristol linen-draper, he was briefly imprisoned in 1792 ‘for a bill endorsed for a deceitful friend’. His release was secured by Elizabeth Tyler. He died in December 1792, after what his eldest son described as a ‘long’ decline.

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The daughter of a lawyer from Durham. She married Tom Southey in June 1810. Their nine surviving children were born between 1811–1824.

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Sailor and farmer. Southey’s younger brother and the one to whom he was in the 1790s closest. Tom entered the navy as a midshipman at the age of 12, saw action in several major battles of the French revolutionary wars (including Cape St Vincent and Copenhagen), was captured on one occasion, wounded on several others, and was made a lieutenant as reward for his bravery in the fight between Mars and L’Hercule on 21 April 1798. He was sent to the West Indies station in early 1804, court martialled for insubordination there, but was given a post under a different captain. He was made captain himself in 1811, but never commanded a ship. After he retired from the navy, he tried his hand at farming and as a customs officer. His last posting was at Demerara, British Guiana, and he died on shipboard on the return voyage to England. He married Sarah Castle in 1810 and produced a large family. Tom’s lack of financial stability meant that some of the burden of supporting him fell on his brothers Robert and Henry Herbert Southey. Tom’s knowledge of the navy and seafaring, and his observations of foreign climes, provided important information for many of Southey’s writings, including his poetry and The Life of Nelson (1813). Tom’s only publication was A Chronological History of the West Indies (1827), written with his brother Robert’s encouragement.

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Younger brother and at one time the business partner of Southey’s father, Robert Southey Senior. He was the beneficiary of the will of John Southey, to Southey’s envy and dismay, thus becoming a rich man. He spent his later years in Taunton, Somerset. Although unmarried, childless, and wealthy Thomas Southey was on distant terms with his brother Robert’s sons. Thomas Southey’s Will held no surprises — it cut his nephews off without a penny, ‘his last boast being ... that no one of his own name should ever be a shilling the better for him’.

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American Quaker, inventor and writer. He sent Southey a copy of his Gazetteer of the State of New York (1813), and the two corresponded in 1817 about Spafford’s novel, The Mother-in-Law (1817), which was set in the Lake District.

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Of Mirehouse, near Keswick. A boyhood friend of Wordsworth who became a close friend of the Southey family.

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Surgeon at Taunton with literary inclinations, and a friend of James Montgomery. Standert was known to Southey through the latter’s extensive family connections in Taunton and the two men occasionally corresponded.

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Member of a long-established Cumberland family, he had made a fortune in London as a partner in a firm of wholesale linen drapers and warehousemen, and bought an estate at Crosthwaite in 1810, where he built a new house called Dove Cote. He was on good terms with Southey and his family.

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Officer of the East India Company. Son of John Strachey. Educated at Westminster (adm. 1787) and Trinity College, Cambridge (BA 1795; MA 1822). Writer EICS (Madras) 1796; Assistant in the Military, Secret and Political Department, 1798; Joint Assay Master, 1807; Private Secretary to the Governor, 1808; Judge and Magistrate of the Zillah of Cuddapah, 1809; Junior Secretary to Government, 1812; Chief Secretary, 1813; retired 1824. Strachey was Southey’s ‘substance’ (an older boy assigned to induct a new pupil into school rules and rituals) at Westminster School. During their schooldays, Strachey (perhaps in response to the scandal surrounding The Flagellant) was one of many acquaintances who treated Southey ‘like a scabby sheep’, dropping him. They were later only partially reconciled, but enough for Southey to commemorate Strachey’s departure for India in 1798 with a sonnet (‘Fair be thy fortunes in the distant land’) published in the Morning Post. Southey attempted to maintain their correspondence, but it had lapsed by April 1805 when he confessed that as Strachey had not replied to his letters, he would ‘not ... write to him again, nor in any way force myself upon him.’

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DNB

Newspaper proprietor and journalist. Originally a printer, he bought the Morning Post in 1795 and turned it into the leading anti-government newspaper and a very profitable venture. Though he sold the Morning Post in 1803, he retained an interest in the Courier, which he acquired in 1800–1801, though it is disputed how much influence he had over the newspaper’s contents. Stuart employed Southey to write poems for the Morning Post at a guinea a week in 1798–1799, and again in 1801–1803. This ‘laureateship’ was crucial to Southey’s finances. He invited Southey to contribute to the Courier in November 1807 and in that same month included excerpts from Letters from England in the paper (on 17th and 20th). Southey continued to order the Courier as his daily paper and occasionally published poems there, including a sonnet praising Lord Percy for his involvement in the abolition of the slave trade in 1807 and a controversial ode (‘Who counsels peace’) attacking British policy towards Bonaparte in 1814.

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Daughter of Godolphin Rooper (1709–1790) of Berkampstead, she married Lord Sunderlin in 1778. The couple had no children.

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Elder brother of the Shakespeare critic, Edmond Malone (1741–1812; DNB). Sunderlin was an Irish politician, barrister and landowner, who received his title in 1785. Southey got to know Sunderlin and his family well when they visited the Lakes in 1812–1813.

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Schoolmaster, clergyman, and classicist. Educated at the Grammar School in Richmond, Yorkshire, and Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. In 1796 he became headmaster of Richmond School and transformed it into an educational powerhouse. He rejected corporal punishment and instead attempted to enthuse pupils with his own love of learning. He published textbooks on the classics and also Horatius Restitutus (1832), which attempted to arrange the works of Horace in chronological order. Politically he was a Whig and a proponent of Catholic Emancipation. Southey corresponded with Tate in 1816 about the latter’s pupil, Herbert Knowles.

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Gentleman farmer, classicist and occasional contributor to the Quarterly Review. Taylor lived in County Durham and became acquainted with Southey through the latter’s brother, Tom. His son, Henry Taylor, later became a close friend of Southey’s and his literary executor.

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Poet and civil servant. The son of the gentleman farmer and classicist George Taylor. Southey became acquainted with the Taylors in the early 1810s via his brother Tom, who lived near them in County Durham. Taylor joined the Colonial Office in 1824, eventually rising to be senior clerk for the Carribean colonies. He married Theodosia (1818–1891), daughter of the politican Thomas Spring Rice in 1839. Taylor was a successful civil servant, knighted for his service to the Colonial Office in 1869. He managed to combine his job with a literary career. His greatest success was the drama Philip Van Artevelde (1834), which contained a preface critiquing Byron and Shelley. Taylor and Southey were on excellent terms, and the latter encouraged the former’s literary ambitions, writing a favourable review of his Isaac Comnenus (1827). They toured Holland, France and Belgium in 1825 and 1826 and in the 1830s Southey appointed Taylor as his literary executor and official biographer. The family feud that erupted after Southey’s marriage to Caroline Bowles and that escalated after his death, made Taylor’s role impossible and he resigned from the task. Taylor’s Autobiography (1885) includes material on his friendship with Southey.

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Reviewer and translator. Born in Norwich, the only child of William and Sarah Taylor. Taylor’s interest in German culture culminated in his Historic Survey of German Poetry (1828–1830). He was also a prolific contributor to the Annual Review, The Athenaeum, Monthly Magazine, and Monthly Review. Southey and Taylor met in 1798, whilst the former was on a visit to Great Yarmouth, where his brother Henry Herbert Southey was being tutored by George Burnett. Taylor introduced Southey to his great friend Frank Sayers (1763–1817; DNB) — whose 1792 collection Poems had influenced Southey’s early work — and also to radical and dissenting circles in Norwich. Taylor gave Southey the idea for the Annual Anthology and was an acute, if frequently blunt, critic of his work. From 1803–1804, he edited the Norwich newspaper The Iris, to which Southey contributed poetry. Southey described Taylor as ‘one of the three great men of my acquaintance ... the more I know him and the longer I know him, the more do I admire his knowledge and love his moral character.’

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DNB

Civil engineer and architect. The son of a shepherd from Eskdale, Dumfriesshire, he was apprenticed to a stonemason at the age of fourteen and taught himself how to design and manage building projects. Telford made his name as Surveyor of Public Works in Shropshire, where he built the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct over the River Dee (1805). His largest project, which he co- ordinated from 1803 onwards, was a plan to improve communications in the Highlands of Scotland, including the Caledonian Canal, 920 miles of new roads, over 1,000 new bridges and many harbour improvements. He also designed the Menai Suspension Bridge (1819–1826). Southey inspected the Caledonian Canal and other Highland improvements with Telford and Rickman in 1819 and greatly admired Telford’s work – he wrote three ‘Inscriptions’ for the Caledonian Canal and praised Telford in his New Year’s Ode for 1823. Telford left Southey a legacy in his Will and asked him to write his biography. Southey did not fulfill this commission, possibly because of his own failing health.

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Political radical, poet and erstwhile friend of Coleridge. Arrested on a charge of treason in 1794, Thelwall became first a farmer at Llyswen, Wales, then a speech therapist, journalist and itinerant lecturer on elocution. He remained a Radical but faded from the forefront of the political scene after the 1790s. Though they came to disagree on politics, Southey retained a good deal of affection for Thelwall.

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A native of Hereford, father of William Bowyer Thomas. He was involved in the management of Herbert Hill’s business affairs.

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A native of Hereford, Thomas was the business agent for Herbert Hill, Southey’s uncle. His job also involved him in the tangled finances of Elizabeth Tyler, Hill’s half-sister and Southey’s aunt. Thomas met Southey during the latter’s 1795–1796 visit to Portugal. Southey stayed with him in Hereford in 1798 and through Thomas gained access to the cathedral library. In 1800 Thomas married a cousin, a woman Southey greatly admired. Thomas died suddenly in 1802.

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Well-known hosier in Oxford, with a shop in Broad Street; Mayor of Oxford, 1775–6 and 1789–90. Thorp and his son and namesake, William Thorp (1762–1835), Vicar of Sandfield, 1807–35, were friends of Southey’s during his time at Oxford.

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Writer, first Professor of Modern Languages at Harvard, and co-founder of the Boston Public Library. Born in Boston, he was educated at Dartmouth College and later studied for the Massachusetts Bar. Finding the law uncongenial, he decided to pursue his studies and visited Europe from 1815 to 1819, for some of this time accompanied by his friend Edward Everett. The two enrolled at the University of Göttingen; while there Ticknor was offered a newly created chair in French and Spanish at Harvard. He prepared for his new role by spending time in France and Spain, and returned to Boston to assume his duties in 1819. He resigned from Harvard in 1835 and travelled again in Europe from 1835 to 1838. Ticknor and Southey met in Paris in 1817. They had shared interests in Spanish literature, culture and history and in collecting books and manuscripts. Ticknor amassed an extraordinary library, some of which informed his three-volume History of Spanish Literature (1849). Ticknor visited Keswick in 1819, and spent time with Southey. Their correspondence lasted for the rest of the latter’s life. Southey, who described Ticknor as ‘one of the best informed men I ever became acquainted with’, promised him the manuscript of his New England poem ‘Oliver Newman’, a promise carried out after Southey’s death.

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A member of the Tighe family of Rossanna, County Wicklow, and uncle of the poet Mary Tighe (1772–1810; DNB). He was the author of Psalms and Hymns (1789) and of other sermons and religious tracts. In 1821 he sent Southey a copy of his biography of the devotional writer and non-juror William Law (1686–1761; DNB).

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Anglican clergyman, Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge, 1810–1828, and later Rector of Freckenham, Suffolk, 1829–1835. Tilbrook was on good terms with Wordsworth, near whose home at Rydal he purchased a cottage, the ‘Ivy Cot’. Southey corresponded with him over a number of charitable projects, including plans to help James Dusautoy and Robert Bloomfield. Tillbrook also published an extended critique of Southey’s use of hexameters in A Vision of Judgement (1821).

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DNB

Abolitionist son of a Nevis sugar planter, Tobin became friends with Coleridge and Wordsworth, whom he may have visited in 1797 in Somerset. In Bristol he befriended Humphry Davy and participated in the nitrous oxide experiments at Thomas Beddoes’s Pneumatic Institution. A prospective Pantisocrat, Tobin later contributed five poems to the second volume of Southey’s Annual Anthology and urged Southey to produce a third. A political radical and, in the mid-1790s, a follower of William Godwin, Tobin began to lose his eyesight when in America and Nevis in 1793–94. In 1804 Tobin was bereaved of his brother and companion John (1770–1804), and fell out with Coleridge, who resented his advice on money and health matters. In September 1807 he married Jane Mallet (d. 1837), and from 1809 till his death lived on Nevis, campaigning against cruelty to slaves.

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Poet and collector. Educated at Eton and Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he won the Chancellor’s English medal in 1817 for a poem, ‘Jerusalem’. He was ordained but never took up a living. Determined on a poetic career, he wrote to Southey for advice. The latter encouraged his ambitions; Townshend visited Greta Hall and dedicated his Poems (1821) to the Poet Laureate. Several further volumes followed, including The Weaver’s Boy (a revised edition of the 1821 collection), The Reigning Vice: A Satirical Essay in Four Books (1827), Sermons in Sonnets (1851) and The Burning of the Amazon (1852). Townshend also wrote for periodicals, contributing to Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, Household Words, and All the Year Round. His work for the latter two was a result of his friendship with Charles Dickens (1812–1870; DNB), with whom he shared an interest in mesmerism. Dickens dedicated Great Expectations to Townshend; the latter made Dickens his literary executor. On his death, Townshend, an avid collector, bequeathed his collections to the South Kensington Museum and the Wisbech and Fenland Museum, and his library to the latter. The bulk of his estate was used to endow a charity school offering free evening education to some 400 children over the age of thirteen.

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Wealthy vintner of Great Queen Street, London, an acquaintance of John Horne Tooke, Joseph Watt, William Godwin, and the Wordsworths. His fame as a conversationalist led to the epithet ‘River’ to describe him. Southey’s correspondence with him does not appear to have survived.

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Banker, botanist and antiquary. He was born and spent most of his adult life in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk. Educated in Norfolk and at Pembroke College, Cambridge, Turner married Mary Palgrave (1774–1850) in 1796, the same year he joined the family bank, Gurney and Turner. He used his wealth and leisure time to pursue interests in botany, antiquities, painting and collecting art, books and manuscripts, accumulating over 8,000 volumes. He published on a number of subjects, including botany, travel, architecture and antiquities. His wife and daughters, whose artistic skills had been honed by the tutelage of John Crome (1768–1821; DNB) and John Sell Cotman (1782–1842; DNB), often supplied illustrations for his works. After the death of his wife in 1850, Turner made a second marriage to Rosamund Matilda Duff (1810–1863) that caused a rift with his family and friends. Turner and his new wife moved to London. He sold part of his collection of books and paintings, and died in the capital in 1858. Turner wrote to Southey in 1816, enclosing an etching of the Laureate produced by his wife, Mary, and condoling with him on the death of Herbert Southey. (The Turners had themselves lost three of their eleven children in infancy.) Thereafter, the two maintained an intermittent correspondence.

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Lawyer and historian who lived at Red Lion square near the British Museum and used the manuscripts thus accessible to him to compile a History of the Anglo-Saxons, 4 vols (1799–1805), on which Southey drew in Madoc (1805). A long term friend and correspondent of Southey, in 1817 Turner gave him legal advice over the Wat Tyler piracy.

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The older, unmarried half-sister of Southey’s mother. She had spent her early life looking after an elderly relative and on his death received an inheritance which she then spent on living the high life. Her extravagance was a source of great concern to her relatives, in particular her half-brother Herbert Hill. Elizabeth Tyler was painted by Joshua Reynolds and moved in cultural circles in Bath and Bristol, counting amongst her friends the Palmers, owners of the Theatre Royal, Bath. Southey was largely brought up in her household, an experience he later described in a series of autobiographical letters to John May. Southey quarrelled with his aunt over his relationship with Edith Fricker and involvement in Pantisocracy, and on a wet night in 1794 she threw him out. They never saw or spoke to one another again. Southey later speculated that Elizabeth Tyler, whose grandmother had died ‘in confinement’, suffered from a form of insanity, noting that ‘her habitual violence of temper is now increased by long indulgence absolutely to a state of derangement’.

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Daughter of the London merchant George Tarbutt. In 1797 she married Thomas Vardon. They had at least three children, including Thomas Vardon (1799–1867; DNB), Librarian of the House of Commons. Her sister, Caroline Forsyth Tarbutt, married Southey’s old Oxford friend George Maule (d. 1851) in 1810.

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Iron merchant and manufacturer in Greenwich, where he was a partner in the Crowley works and an important supplier to the Royal Navy. Vardon met Southey on his tour of the Netherlands in 1815. They had a mutual friend in John William Knox (1784–1862) and Vardon also knew the family of the wife of Southey’s old Westminster friend, Charles Collins.

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Head Master of Westminster School 1778–1802 and later Dean of Westminster. A Tory, in 1792 he used a public sermon at St Margaret’s, Westminster, to defend the constitution and the prevailing social order. He published works on the geography and commerce of the classical world.

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Radical writer. Born in Nottingham, the son of George Wakefield, Rector of St Nicholas’s Church. He attended Jesus College, Cambridge, graduating with a BA in 1776. Wakefield was a Fellow of the College 1776–1779 and a deacon 1778–1779. But he resigned the former post on his marriage and the latter on his conversion to Unitarianism. Thereafter he was a teacher (at Warrington Dissenting Academy 1779–1783) and a professional writer, mainly on classical, religious and political topics. He was one of the Pitt government’s fiercest critics and was imprisoned for two years in Dorchester gaol for his A Reply to Some Parts of the Bishop of Landaff’s Address (1798). Southey visited him in prison.

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Librarian of the Public Library in Ghent, 1810–1818. Southey corresponded with him in 1815 as part of his book-buying activities during his tour of Belgium.

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Founding owner, printer and editor of the Cumberland Pacquet and Ware’s Whitehaven Advertiser 1774–1820. Southey sent the newspaper a letter in 1819 in protest at Henry Brougham’s campaign against the government’s support of the Manchester magistrates over their actions in the ‘Peterloo Massacre’ of 1819.

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In the 1790s a critic of the French revolution and its British supporters and an opponent of Gilbert Wakefield. Southey came to know Watson after his move to the Lakes, visiting him at his Calgarth estate in Troutbeck Bridge, Windermere, where he had lived since 1788.

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Chemist. Third son of the potter Josiah Wedgwood (1730–1795; DNB). He inherited a substantial fortune of the death of his father and dedicated this to supporting writers and scientists. He was a patron of Beddoes’ Pneumatic Medical Institution and of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. He participated in Davy’s Bristol experiments with nitrous oxide and later attended his lectures at the Royal Institution.

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Childhood friend of Southey. A servant of Elizabeth Tyler, Southey’s aunt, and a recruit to Pantisocracy.

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DNB, Hist P

Pre-eminent British soldier of the nineteenth century, created Duke of Wellington in 1814. In later life he was a Tory politician, and Prime Minister 1828–1830, 1834. Southey’s relationship with Wellington was deeply ambiguous. He passionately supported Wellington’s aim of defeating the French invasion of Spain in 1808–1813, but was often critical of Wellington’s tactics, especially his caution and unwillingness to rely on Spanish help. In 1815 Southey was alarmed to find that an article he had written for the Quarterly Review on Wellington’s role at Waterloo had been personally censored by the general to remove unflattering references to his conduct of the battle. Southey’s History of the Peninsula War (1824–1832) retained a guarded attitude towards the Duke. In 1829, Southey was horrified by the decision of Wellington’s government to support Catholic Emancipation.

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Governor-General of Bengal, who returned to England in early 1806. Wellesley’s governorship was marked by a drive to acquire more territory in India. On his return, political controversy soon erupted: James Paull (1770–1808; DNB), Indian trader (1790–1805), accused Wellesley of ruining his trade in Lucknow (Bengal) and undermining the nawab of Oudh’s authority there during the years 1801–1802. This challenge kept Wellesley out of political office until 1809. In that year Wellesley was appointed Ambassador to Spain, and he arrived in Seville in August 1809 to negotiate with the embattled Supreme Central Junta. Here, he found himself once again in the same theatre of military and diplomatic activity as his brother Sir Arthur Wellesley (Duke of Wellington), his main aim being to support his brother’s army in the Peninsula. The Junta’s unwillingness to organise supplies for the British Army while urging a policy of attack led Wellesley (and Southey) to suspect some of the Junta of co-operating with the French. Southey was suspicious of Wellesley’s role in the Cabinet as Foreign Secretary 1809–1812, because he knew Wellesley favoured Catholic Emancipation. Nevertheless, he had some hopes that Wellesley’s appointment as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1821–1828 might lead to stern measures to suppress rural disorders.

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Painter. Born in Pennsylvania, the son of an innkeeper, West travelled to Italy in 1760 and England in 1763, remaining there for the rest of his life. Although he worked in a number of genres, West became best known, first, as a history painter and, later in his career, as a painter of religious subjects. His works included, Agrippina Landing at Brundisium with the Ashes of Germanicus (1768) and

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Painter and engraver, whose works played an important role in the shaping of Romantic ideas of the landscape. He was the half brother of the academician Richard Westall (1765–1836; DNB). In 1801 he was appointed as the landscape draughtsman for the voyage to New Holland and the South Seas commanded by Matthew Flinders. His travels eventually also took him to Canton and Bombay. He arrived back in England in 1805 and was elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society later that year. He held exhibitions of his foreign views in 1808 and 1809. In 1811 he became a full member of the Society of Painters in Water Colours, contributing to their exhibitions of 1811 and 1812. In 1814 Flinders’s A Voyage to Terra Australis contained 37 illustrations by Westall. He had a nervous breakdown in 1815. With the help of Sir George Beaumont, he became a regular visitor to the Lakes, where he met Southey and Wordsworth, who both admired his work. Westall and Southey corresponded and the latter contributed an introduction to the former’s Views of the Lake and Vale of Keswick (1820). This described Westall as ‘by far the most faithful delineator of the scenery of the Lakes’.

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The son of a butcher in Nottingham, White was a studious boy who, after being articled to a lawyer, learned classical languages and, with help from Capel Lofft (1753–1824 ; DNB), patron of Robert Bloomfield, published Clifton Grove, a Sketch in Verse, with other Poems in 1803. The book was violently attacked in the Monthly Review (February 1804); Southey then wrote to White offering encouragement. White also received help from evangelical Anglicans, who provided the means for him to study towards becoming a student at Cambridge. In 1805 he took up a place there, but his fierce regime of study exacerbated a delicate constitution, and he became ill and died. Southey then edited his Remains (1807), having been supplied with papers by White’s brother Neville. These were well received, went through several editions and established White’s reputation.

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Younger brother of Henry Kirke and (John) Neville White. He attended Pembroke College, Cambridge, graduating in 1815; Southey sent him some encouraging letters when White was disappointed by his academic performance. White never married and became a clergyman. Initially, he held difficult curacies in industrial parishes in West Bromwich and then St George’s, Manchester (1826–42) – Southey helped him acquire the latter post. However, he finally benefited from the connections his brother, Neville White, had made in Norfolk, especially that with Benjamin Cubitt (1769–1852), a wealthy clergyman and landowner. Cubitt was a relative of Neville White’s wife, Charlotte Sewell, and married in 1827, as his second wife, Neville and James’s middle sister, Frances Moriah White (1791–1854). To consolidate the Whites’ connections with the Cubitts even further, in 1835 Catherine Bailey White (1794–1889), the youngest sister of Neville and James, married Thomas Mack (1794–1858), Benjamin Cubitt’s nephew and another Norfolk clergyman and landowner (Curate 1822–37, Vicar 1837–58 of Tunstead). Cubitt, as patron of the living, appointed James White to be Vicar of Stalham in Norfolk (1843–52). Following Cubitt’s death, White succeeded him as Rector of Sloley (1852–85), and was followed by one of Neville White’s sons, Joseph Neville White (1825–1901) as Vicar of Stalham (1852–1901). James White also inherited the estate at Sloley after the death of his sister, Frances. White officiated at the marriage of Southey’s daughter, Edith May, and John Warter, at Keswick in 1834.

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Elder brother of Henry Kirke White. He was called by his second name, 'Neville'. Southey greatly admired him and the two men became regular correspondents. He initially trained as a medical student in London, but then became a hosiery merchant. In the latter capacity he was able to help Southey acquire books and newspapers from South America for his work on the Edinburgh Annual Register (1810–13) and the History of Brazil (1810–19). He then gave up his business, decided to become a clergyman, and in 1820 married Charlotte Sewell (1799–1873), the daughter of Joseph Sewell (1772–1844), a wealthy Norwich solicitor. White obtained a Bachelor of Divinity degree from Cambridge (1829) and became a clergyman in Norfolk, serving as Perpetual Curate of Great Plumstead from 1822, before his father-in-law, as patron, appointed him to the living at Rushall 1828–32. White then moved on to be Rector of Tivetshall 1832–45. His marriage to Charlotte Sewell produced ten children. One of his sons, Herbert Southey White (1830–63; he succeeded his uncle, Thomas Mack, as Vicar of Tunstead 1858–63), married a granddaughter of Southey’s, Edith Frances Warter (1837–63), so uniting the two families. Another son, James Sewell White (1827–1912), a barrister, inherited the Sloley estate in Norfolk from his uncle, James White, but only on condition that he changed his surname to ‘Neville’.

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DNB

Spanish poet and journalist. He was the grandson of an Irishman who had founded a business in Seville, though his mother was from a minor Spanish noble family. In 1798 he became a priest, though he had effectively abandoned this role by 1805 and did not find a new vocation until, in 1808–1810, he edited the Seminario Patriotico in Seville in aid of the Spanish cause, followed by El Espanol in London 1810–1814. White supported the need for reform and despaired at the restitution of the absolute Monarchy in 1814. He spent the rest of his life in England as a journalist and miscellaneous writer. Southey respected White’s political role in 1808–1814, and once he had become an Anglican in 1812, tried to help him find a post in the Church. He was also crucial in urging White to write a tract against Catholic Emancipation in 1825, which led to White becoming an Honorary Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford in 1826–1832. In his last years he moved away from Anglicanism to Unitarianism.

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The second son of William Wilberforce and his wife Barbara. He was educated privately and then at Oriel College, Oxford, becoming a Fellow of the latter in 1826. However, he resigned his Fellowship in 1831 and took up a career in the Church of England, becoming Archdeacon of the East Riding in 1841. He was close to many of the leading figures in the Oxford Movement and converted to Roman Catholicism in 1854. Wilberforce met Southey as a young man during family visits to the Lake District. He later corresponded occasionally with him, particularly over the edition of his father’s letters produced by Wilberforce and his brother Samuel (1805–1873; DNB)

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Son of a wealthy merchant in Hull; MP for Hull 1780–84, Yorkshire 1784–1812 and Bramber 1812–25. Wilberforce underwent a conversion to evangelical Christianity in the mid-1780s and became one of the country’s leading campaigners against the slave trade. Southey admired Wilberforce’s stance and the two started to correspond in 1813 over the need to promote Christian missionary activity in India.

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Cumbrian landscape gardener, who owned a small estate at Yanwath, south of Penrith, and advised William Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale, on improvements to his grounds. Wilkinson, a Quaker, was a friend of Thomas Clarkson and of Wordsworth. A keen fellwalker and a poet, Wilkinson published Tours to the British Mountains; with the Descriptive Poems of Lowther, and Emont Vale (1824).

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Writer. She was the daughter of Charles Williams (d. 1762) and his second wife Helen Hay (1730–1812). Her early writings included Edwin and Eltruda (1782), Peru (1784) and Poems (1786); the latter elicited a tribute from William Wordsworth, his first publication (‘Sonnet on Seeing Miss Helen Maria Williams Weep at a Tale of Distress’). She moved in the circles that included Anna Letitia Barbauld, William Godwin, Samuel Rogers and Anna Seward, and was a committed abolitionist. From the early 1790s she lived mainly in France, which she first visited in 1790, or, during periods when it was unsafe for her to be there, in Switzerland. Her first hand account of the revolution – Letters from France – appeared in 1790 and eventually extended through eight volumes and several, revised editions. She translated writings by Bernadin de St Pierre (1737-1814) and Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859). Other works included an account of the Hundred Days of 1815. After Napoleon’s fall from power, her home in Paris became a regular calling-in spot for English tourists. Southey visited her during in May 1817 during his continental tour.

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Civil Servant. He was appointed one of the Commissioners of Customs in 1799, was a Fellow of the Royal Society and wrote two works in opposition to a return to the gold standard in 1811–1812. Wilson married Elizabeth Whitear (1775–1852), widow of Francis North (1778–1821), in 1825 and retired to Hastings in later life. Southey wrote to him in 1820 asking if he possessed a letter to John Wesley (1703–1791; DNB) from a female follower that might prove Wesley had made improper advances to this young woman. Southey had been informed that the letter had been stolen from Wesley’s desk by his wife when they separated and given to Glocester Wilson’s mother. Wilson replied that he only possessed a copy, not the original, of this letter. Southey therefore did not publish his information, as it remained hearsay.

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Scottish author and journalist from a wealthy family. He was an early admirer of Wordsworth and settled in the Lake District in 1805. Southey did not know him well. Financial losses forced Wilson into journalism and he became the mainstay of Blackwood’s Magazine 1817–1854, where he wrote some notorious attacks on his former idols, Wordsworth and Coleridge.

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Housekeeper at Greta Hall, daughter of a Keswick midwife. Beloved of the Southey and Coleridge families; ‘Wilsy’ left money in her will to the Southey and Coleridge children.

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Under-Master at Westminster School 1788–1802.

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DNB

Baptist Minister. He was born in London and apprenticed to a silversmith, but after a conversion experience he became a Baptist Minister in 1789 and the following year moved to Plymouth to take charge of the congregation at How’s Lane Meeting House. In 1793 he was sentenced to four years imprisonment for two radical sermons he preached to his congregation. Winterbotham passed most of his incarceration in Newgate prison and spent his time in writing – he published an account of his trial, sermons and works of divinity and geography. On his release he returned to preach in Plymouth, moving to Newmarket in 1808. Winterbotham’s and Southey’s lives intersected when Southey visited Newgate in January 1795 to see the radical publisher James Ridgway, to whom his brother-in-law, Robert Lovell, had delivered a copy of Southey’s play, Wat Tyler. Southey stated that Ridgway promised to publish the play, but he heard no more about the matter. However, when Wat Tyler finally saw the light of day in 1817, Winterbotham swore to an entirely different version of events in an affidavit. He claimed that Southey had visited Newgate on a number of occasions in late 1795 or early 1796. Furthermore, Winterbotham asserted that on one of these visits Southey was accompanied by the radical journalist, Daniel Isaac Eaton (c. 1753–1814; DNB) and that Southey gave Winterbotham the manuscript of, and copyright to, Wat Tyler, asking him to publish it as a pamphlet. Winterbotham claimed to have no knowledge of how the play had come to be published in 1817 and to still possess the manuscript of Wat Tyler. This dispute over the copyright of Wat Tyler meant Southey lost his application for an injunction to prevent its publication. Moreover, it opened the floodgates to a series of cheap editions, none of which paid Southey a penny. Ironically, the play became Southey’s bestselling work. Southey was convinced that Winterbotham had perjured himself, though he admitted there might be a possibility that Winterbotham had confused Southey with Lovell. The circumstances surrounding the publication of Wat Tyler remain something of a mystery. Further confusion was added to the picture by the essayist John Foster (1770–1843; DNB) who claimed in a letter to Joseph Cottle that two unknown people in Worcester had copied the play from Winterbotham’s manuscript without his knowledge and provided it to the publishers in 1817.

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DNB

Author. Southey was a great admirer of Wollstonecraft and dedicated ‘The Triumph of Woman’ (published in his Poems (1797)) to her. They met in London in 1797, where they moved in the same radical circles. Southey mourned her death in his 1797 poem ‘To A. S. Cottle’.

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A resident of the Cumbrian port of Maryport. She was possibly a member of the Wood family, who were leading shipbuilders in the town. Miss Wood was the mortgagee of Greta Hall, Southey’s home, from 1815, and Southey paid his rent directly to her for a period from 1817 onwards. Southey corresponded with her intermittently on a professional basis.

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DNB

Fourth child of Mary and William Wordsworth. Born 5 September 1808. Died of convulsions on 4 June 1812.

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Anglican clergyman and scholar. He was the youngest brother of William Wordsworth and, like his older brother, was educated at Hawkshead School and Trinity College, Cambridge (1792–1796), where he became a Fellow in 1798. He was ordained in 1799 and enjoyed a successful clerical career through the patronage of Charles Manners-Sutton (1755–1828; DNB), Archbishop of Canterbury 1805–1828, whose son Wordsworth had tutored. He served as Rector of Woodchurch, Kent, 1806–1808, Bocking in Essex 1808–1816, St Mary’s, Lambeth 1816–1820 and Uckfield, Sussex, 1820–1846. Wordsworth was elected Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1820–1841, where his length of tenure was not matched by his popularity or achievements. Wordsworth’s list of publications included an Ecclesiastical Biography (1810) and Who wrote Ikon Basilike? (1824). In 1804 he married Priscilla Lloyd (d. 1815), sister of Charles Lloyd.

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DNB

Writer. She and Southey probably met in 1795 but their relationship only flourished after Southey and his family moved to Keswick in 1803.

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Wife of William Wordsworth. The Southeys became better acquainted with her after their move to Keswick in September 1803.

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Third child of Mary and William Wordsworth. Born 15 June 1806. Died of measles 1 December 1812.

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DNB

Poet. Wordsworth and Southey met in Bristol in 1795. Their relationship became closer after the Southeys moved to Keswick in 1803 and particularly after the death of John Wordsworth in 1805, when Southey provided comfort and managed some of Wordsworth’s business affairs in the immediate aftermath of the tragedy. Southey early recognised Wordsworth as one of the great poets but maintained a detached amusement about his unconscious pride and vanity.

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Politician. The second son of Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, 4th Baronet, and his second wife Charlotte Grenville. He was educated at home by a tutor, the Revd Robert Nares, and later at Westminster (adm. 1784) and Christ Church, Oxford (matric. 1791, BA 1795, MA 1798, DCL 1810). Entered Lincoln’s Inn in 1795 and was called to the Bar in 1798. He married Mary Cunliffe, daughter of a baronet, in 1806. Wynn had excellent family and political connections as his maternal grandfather was the Prime Minister George Grenville (1712–1770; DNB). He served as an MP for Old Sarum (1797–1799) and for Montgomeryshire (1799–1850). From 1806–1807, he served in the Ministry of Talents (led by his uncle Lord Grenville) as Under Secretary to the Home Office, and secured a pension for Southey, which he described as ‘the only benefit I reap from 12 months of office’. From 1822–1828, he held a cabinet post as President of the Board of Control. Wynn met Southey at Westminster and the two remained friends for rest of their lives. He contributed to The Flagellant (1792) under pseudonyms which included ‘St Pardulph’. Wynn (who was not personally wealthy) gave Southey an annuity of £160 from 1797, and Southey dedicated Madoc (1805) to him.

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Daughter of Foster Cunliffe, 3rd Baronet (1755–1834) and wife of Charles Watkin Williams Wynn.

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Hist P

Elder brother of Charles Watkin Williams Wynn. Like his brother, Watkin was a long-serving MP 1794–1840, though he never held political office. His main interests were the family estates in North Wales, which he inherited in 1789, and military life – he raised the Ancient British Fencibles in 1794 and saw service in Ireland in 1798.

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